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PREPARED BY 

CHICAGO AREA TRANSPORTATION STUD? on 1989 
" Adams Street Chicago, Illinois 60606 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



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3 5556 021 245 



O'HARB RAPID TRANSIT EXTENSION 
BEFORE/ AFTER ANALYSIS 



September 1986 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 




http://www.archive.org/details/oharerapidtransOObell 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

List of Pigures i 

List of Illustrations Hi 

Overview v 

Introduction 1 

A. Purpose 1 

B. History 2 

C. The O'Hare Corridor 4 

D. Methodology 6 

1. Before Study 6 

2. interim Study 7 

After Study Methodology 9 

A. Parking Inventories 10 

B. License Plate/Vehicle Sticker Survey 10 

C. Taxi Counts 11 

D. Data From cooperating Agencies 11 

B. CATS User Surveys 11 

1 . summary 11 

2. Rapid Transit Passenger Survey 13 

3. Chicago and North Western Passenger Survey 13 

4. O'Hare Airport Employee Survey - Auto 14 

5. O'Hare Corridor Survey - office Buildings 14 

changes in Usage of Transportation Facilities 15 

A. Rapid Transit 15 

1. Ridership 15 

2. Parking 16 

B . cta and Suburban Bus 18 

1 . Background 18 

2. Analysis of Bus Ridership Trends 22 

C. Commuter Rail 24 

1. Ridership 24 

2. Parking Inventories 26 

0. Taxicabs at O' Hare Airport 28 

B. Continental Air Transport 28 

F. Inventory Summary 28 

Rapid Transit Passenger Survey 29 

A. Prior Travel Patterns 29 

1. Rapid Transit 30 

2. Auto '. 30 

3. Commuter Rail 30 

4. CTA BUS 30 

5. Taxi 30 

6. continental Air Transport 32 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

PAGE 

7 . Suburban Bus 32 

8 . Other 32 

9. Multiple Former Modes Reported 32 

10. Variations by Station 33 

B. Transit Station Market Areas 34 

1 . Jefferson Park 34 

2 . Har lera Avenue 34 

3 . Cumberland Avenue 34 

4. River Road 38 

5. O'Hare station 38 

C. Trip Purpose 41 

D . Current Access Mode 41 

E. Total Travel Time 44 

F. Reasons for Using the O'Hare Extension 45 

G . Reverse Commut ing 47 

H. Passenger Profile 49 

I . Summary 50 

Chicago and North Western Survey 52 

A. Market Area .« 52 

B. Travel Characteristics 52 

C . Summary 58 

Airport/Airline Employee Survey , . 59 

A. Auto Users 59 

1. Market Area 59 

2. Reasons for Preferring Auto 61 

B . Rapid Transit Users 62 

1. Market Area 62 

2. Reasons for Preferring Rapid Transit 62 

C . Summary , 65 

Corridor Employee Survey 66 

A. Union Building 66 

1 . Market Area 66 

2. Travel Characteristics 66 

3 . Employee Profile 68 

B. Corporate Building « .. .. 68 

1 . Market Area 68 

2. Travel Characteristics 68 

3 . Employee Profile 70 

C. Comparison of Travel Characteristics 71 

D. Summary 71 

Land Use Summary 72, 

After Study Conclusions 90 

A. Ridership .*.. 90 

B. Increasing O'Hare Extension Ridership 91 

Appendix Al 



LIST OP FIGURES 
NUMBER TITLE PAGE 

1 . summary of Agency Work Assignments 7 

2. Total Boardings Jefferson Park to O'Hare in the 

Before. Interim and After Phases 15 

3. Origins of Cars Parked on the Street near the Jefferson 

Park Station 16 

4. comparison of Vehicles Parked on the Street at 

Harlem Avenue with the Decline in Vehicles Parked 

on the street at Jefferson Park 17 

5. After Study Inventory of Vehicles Parked at Rapid Transit 

Station Lots 17 

6. Jefferson Park Feeder Bus Routes Prior to the' 

O ' Hare Extension 20 

7. Jefferson Park Feeder Bus Routes After 

the Opening of the O'Hare Extension 20 

8. Feeder Bus Routes at O'Hare Extension Stations 21 

9. Ridership Trends on Jefferson Park Feeder Bus 

Routes that continue to Serve the O'Hare Corridor 23 

10. comparison of AN Peak Hour Station Boarding Counts - 

CNV Northwest Line '.;•. 25 

11. Comparison of AN Peak Hours Station Boarding counts - 

Milwaukee Road Vest Line 26 

12. Before and After Comparisons of Vehicles Parked at 

CNV Northwest Line Stations 26 

13. Before and After Comparisons of Parking Lot Occupancy 

Rates at CNV Northwest Line Stations 27 

14. Comparisons of Origins of Autos Parked in Chicago and 

North Vestern Lots 27 

15 . Former Node of Travel 29 

16. Neighborhoods Surrounding O'Hare Extension Stations 33 

17. Percent Distribution of CTA O'Hare Extension Riders who 

Switched from Other Nodes of Travel 33 

18. Trip Purpose 41 



NUMBER TITLE PAGE 

19. Variance of Access Mode Distribution from East to West 43 

20. Total Travel Time for O'Hare Extension Trips 44 

21. Reasons for Using the O'Hare Extension Rather 

than Other Modes 45 

22. Percent of Respondents with Total Travel Time 41 to 50 

minutes 46 

23. Distribution of O'Hare Extension Reverse Commutes by Station .. 48 

24. Occupations of O'Hare Extension Passengers 50 

25. Off -Peak Boardings at Study and Non-Study CNV Stations 57 

26. Safety as a Reason for Preferring the CNV 58 

27. Reasons why Airport/Airline Employees 

Do Not Use the O'Hare Extension 61 

28. O'Hare Employees Who Drive and Live East of the Airport - 

Reasons for Not Using the O'Hare Extension 61 

29. Employees Who Use the O'Hare Extension - Reasons for Using 

Rapid Transit 62 

30. New Construction Within a One Mile Radius of the Stations - 

June 1980 through December 1985 80 

31. New construction by Building Type Within A 

one Mile Radius of Each Station 82 

32. New Construction by Community Within a One 

Mile Radius of Each Station - June 1980 

through December 1985 83 

33. New Construction within a One Mile Radius of Each 

Station - June 1980 through December 1985 84 

34. vacant Land within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 88 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

NUMBER TITLE PAGE 

1. Historical Development of Northwest Side Rapid Transit 3 

2. Map of O'Hare Corridor 5 

3. Map of Feeder Bus Routes after the Opening of the O'Hare 

Extension 19 

4. Home Locations of Former Commuter Rail Riders Who Drive 

and Park at the River Road and Cumberland Avenue Stations 31 

5. Home Locations of CTA Rapid Transit Riders Living North 

and Northwest of the Chicago CBD 35 

6. Home Locations of Jefferson Park Rapid Transit Riders 36 

7. Home Locations of Harlem Avenue Rapid Transit Riders 37 

8. Home Locations of Cumberland Avenue Rapid Transit Riders 39 

9. Home Locations of River Road Rapid Transit Riders 40 

10. Home Locations of O'Hare Station Rapid Transit Riders 42 

11 . Home Locations of CNV Riders 53 

12. Home Locations of O'Hare Extension Riders Who Drive and Park 

at the Cumberland Avenue and River Road Stations 54 

13. Destinations of CNV Riders 56 

14. Home Locations of Airport/Airline Employees who Use Auto 60 

15. Home Locations of Airport/Airline Employees Who Live East 

of O" Hare Airport and Drive to Work 63 

16. Horn* Locations of Airport/Airline Employees Who Travel 

Work Via Rapid Transit 64 

17. Home Locations of Union Building Employees 67 

18. Home Locations of Corporate Building Employees 69 

. 19. Harlem Avenue Station 1985 Zoning Hap 74 

20. Harlem Avenue Station - vacant Land and New Construction - 

June 1980 to December 1985 75 

21. Cumberland Avenue Station - 1985 Zoning Map 76 



ill 



NUMBER TITLE PAGE 

22. Cumberland Avenue Station - Vacant Land and New Construction - 

June 1980 to December 1985 77 

23. River Road Station - 1985 Zoning Map 78 

24. River Road Station - Vacant Land and Mew Construction - 

June 1980 to December 1985 79 



OVERVIEW 

In September 1984, the Chicago Transit Authority West /Northwest route 
was extended to O'Hare International Airport, providing an Important rail link 
between downtown Chicago and the world's busiest airport. During the construc- 
tion period a task force was organized to develop guidelines for conducting a 
study of the impact of the new rapid transit line. A before/after study was 
recommended. The purpose was to a) determine the effects on other transporta- 
tion facilities in the area, b) determine the travel patterns of users and non- 
users, c) to study reverse commuting and airport related travel, and d) to 
inventory changes in land use in the vicinity of the new stations. 

The primary area studied is a corridor three miles north and south of 
the O'Hare extension rapid transit line. This corridor has a population of 
over 400,000. Approximately 300,000 persons are employed there. In this 
report the study area is known as the O'Hare Corridor. 

Inventories of transportation facilities revealed that significant 
shifts in usage of alternate modes of travel occurred Immediately after the 
O'Hare extension began operating between Jefferson Park and a temporary 
terminal at River Road. Over 6000 riders switched from the old Jefferson Park 
terminal to stations on the new line. In addition, ridership increased by 36% 
over the before study boarding count at Jefferson Park. Within a year after 
the completion of the final' segment to O'Hare Airport, ridership on the line 
increased by 75%. There were 19,567 daily boardings on the O'Hare extension 
at the time of the after study. Combined weekday boarding and alighting counts 
amount to 85% of the ridership projected in the final environmental impact 
study, only the O'Hare terminal station has less than expected ridership. 

According to the survey of rapid transit passengers, 45% of the 
respondents were new to travel in the O'Hare corridor and 55% had switched 
from some other means of transportation or were boarding the rapid transit 
system at a new station. Of those who switched, 45% had formerly used other 
rapid transit stations. Over 14% formerly made their trips via commuter 
rail. A total of 15% formerly were CTA and suburban bus users. About 7% 
previously used taxis or airport bus services. The majority of former taxi 
users (4%) and former riders of Continental Air Transport buses (3%) were air 
travelers. While a large percentage of the O'Hare station riders formerly 
used these modes, few respondents at other stations on the line reported doing 
so. 

Former auto drivers account for 17% of all O'Hare extension riders 
who switched modes. These individuals represent the only group that diverted 
from a mode that was not a public or private carrier. 

Two Metre commuter rail lines, the Milwaukee Road West Line and the 
Chicago and North Western Northwest Line, run through the area served by the 
O'Hare extension. Efforts to determine whether a change in ridership had 
occurred on the Milwaukee Road West Line proved to be inconclusive, however, 
there was a loss in ridership along the Chicago and North Western. The eight 
stations in the study area had a 20% decline in inbound AM peak hour boardings. 
In addition, average daily ridership at these stations declined by 26%. Park- 
ing lot usage at the CNW stations also declined by 23%. 



The number of suburban vehicles parked on the streets in the vicinity of 
the Jefferson Park station declined by 37% after service was extended west to 
O'Hare Airport. Suburbanites began to use the new, more convenient stations, 
two of which were constructed with large park and ride lots. Over 88% of the 
1500 vehicles parked in these lots were from the suburbs. 

After the O'Hare extension opened there was a major revision of the 
network of bus routes serving the O'Hare corridor. The number of routes 
feeding the stations between Jefferson Park and O'Hare doubled from 17 to 34. 
Average daily ridership on Jefferson Park routes dropped by 4%, while routes 
serving the new stations showed a daily ridership gain of 39%. 

The home locations of O'Hare extension riders are confined mostly to the 
north and northwest sides of Chicago east of Jefferson Park, the O'Hare 
corridor and adjacent suburbs. However, the Cumberland Avenue and River Road 
stations do draw riders from more distant suburbs because of the adjacent park 
and ride lots. 

Over 79% of the O'Hare extension passengers use the line for work/work 
related purposes. Another 9% use the line to travel to and from school. 
Discretionary trips for shopping, recreation, or airport travel constitute the 
remaining 12% of the total. 

Inbound O'Hare extension' riders use various means of travel to get to the 
stations. Autos (drivers and passengers) are used by 39% of the riders while 
CTA and suburban buses are the access mode for 36%. Walking trips to the 
stations are made by 20% of the riders. CTA bus and walking access predomin- 
ate at the city stations on the east end of the extension while auto and Pace 
bus access is more frequent at the suburban stations on the west end. 

The mean total travel time for persons using the O'Hare extension for all 
or part of their trip is 55.9 minutes. Survey respondents who switched from 
some other mode of transportation reported a 13.3% savings in total travel 

time. 

Over 60% of riders indicated the most important reason for using the 
O'Hare extension was cost. The second most important reason was faster travel 
time, but this was indicated by only 13%. 

Reverse commuters, those who travel west, away from the city to go to work 
amount to 21% of all O'Hare extension trips. These persons travel to jobs in 
and near O'Hare Airport. 

Travel characteristics of non-users of the O'Hare extension were deter- 
mined in a series of surveys. Chicago and North Western Northwest Line riders 
were surveyed and it was determined that the majority live within three miles 
of the rail line in an area that is also served by the O'Hare extension. While 
it costs more to ride the CNW. the survey results show that the commuter rail 
line is very convenient to the residences of the riders. Forty-two percent 
walk to the station from home. The destinations of the trips are equally 
convenient. Over 85% walk to their destinations, which are mostly in the 
Chicago CBD within one mile of the station. Riders of the CNW generally incur 
few additional transportation expenses beyond the cost of a ticket. Over 

vi 



ninety-eight percent of all trips were for work/work related purposes and 94% 
were made on a daily basis. In effect, there were few infrequent, discretion- 
ary trips for shopping, recreation and other non-work purposes. It is likely 
that some of the individuals who travel mostly in the off-peak hours have 
switched to O'Hare extension. Indeed, statistics from the survey of rapid 
transit users reveal that 17% of the former commuter rail riders use the 
O'Hare extension during the off-peak hours. 

Another group of non-users are airport/airline workers, 94% of whom use 
autos to get to their jobs. Over 75% report that they don't use the O'Hare 
extension because it is inconvenient to where they live. This is borne out by 
the fact that 65% of the employees who use autos live north, northwest and 
west of the airport in suburban areas with no access to the O'Hare extension. 
Those who live east of the airport generally have better access to rapid 
transit but many choose not to use it. 

Combined data from the rapid transit and auto user surveys reveal that 
16% of the airport work force have used the O'Hare extension to travel to 
work. While 6% are regular riders of the line, the remaining 10% of the 
workers use it at times, when a car is not available or when the weather is 
bad. Only 69% of the regular rapid transit riders own an auto while among auto 
users the rate is 99%. 

According to survey data, employees at O'Hare corridor office buildings 
are predominately non-users of the O'Hare extension. They tend to live either 
in suburban areas where no access to rapid transit exists or in the O'Hare 
corridor within a few miles of their place of work. For this latter group, 
driving is a faster, more convenient alternative. Seventy-eight percent of 
these work trips are via auto, while only 5% are via the O'Hare extension. 
However, an additional 11% of the employees reported that they have used the 
O'Hare extension to travel to work on occasion. Thirty-one percent of the 
employees surveyed had been hired after the O'Hare extension was put into 
service; however, only 3% of employees Indicated they chose the work location 
because of the availability of rapid transit service. 

It appears that office buildings were built in the O'Hare corridor 
because they would be accessible to the regional expressway/ tollway system and 
because O'Hare Airport is nearby. Accessibility to the O'Hare extension was 
of less importance. 

A land use inventory showed that the area around the Harlem Avenue station 
was almost completely built up and the Cumberland Avenue station area was 
approaching full development. In the vicinity of the River Road station, 
however, development of vacant land and redevelopment of existing properties 
continues at a rapid pace. Land usage in the vicinity of Harlem Avenue is 
mostly residential. Office and residential land uses predominate around the 
Cumberland Avenue station, while in the vicinity of the River Road station, 
hotel, office and light industry are the main land uses. 

With all the new development in the station areas and at O'Hare Airport, 
ridership on the O'Hare extension can be expected to grow. However, the 
majority of workers in the O'Hare corridor will continue to use autos to travel 



vii 



to their Jobs. There appears to be significant potential for attracting more 
air travelers to use the O'Hare extension. These individuals have recently 
been the target of aggressive marketing compaigns stressing the advantages of 
rapid transit over other types of transportation. The main function of this 
rapid transit line however, will continue to be to transport O'Hare corridor 
residents to jobs in the CBD. 



CTA O'HARB RAPID TRANSIT EXTENSION 
AFTER STUDY 



I. INTRODUCTION 



in February 1983, the Chicago Transit Authority West/Northwest rapid 
transit route was extended west from the terminal at Jefferson Park on the 
northwest side of Chicago. Initially, the line operated as far as the River 
Road Station in suburban Roseraont and by September 1984, the final link to 
O'Hare Airport was completed. The new service connected the existing rapid 
transit system with a fast developing suburban commercial zone and the world's 
busiest airport. The new line also provides direct service between the airport 
and the CBD through the northwest side of the city. 

At the time the rapid transit extension was under construction, it was 
recognized that there was an excellent opportunity to study changes in travel 
behavior caused by the introduction of new rapid transit service in a heavily 
traveled corridor. A task force was organized in August 1982 to develop guide- 
lines for conducting a study of the impact of the new line on both individual 
travel patterns and the communities served by the new line. The task force 
consists of representatives of public agencies and private organizations that 
are concerned with transportation in the Chicago region. Specifically, this 
group was responsible for developing a study design, assisting with data 
collection and reviewing the progress of the project. 

The O'Hare extension task force concluded that before, interim and after 
studies should be conducted to test the immediate and long term effect of the 
new rapid transit line on the area that would be served. The project would 
also concentrate on airport related travel, reverse commuting and non-users of 
the line. The following agencies and organizations were members of the task 
force: 

Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry 

city of Chicago Department of Public works 

Chicago and North Western Railroad 

Chicago Milwaukee St. Paul and Pacific Railroad 

Chicago Transit Authority 

Continental Air Transport Company 

Cook County Highway Department 

Greater O'Hare Association of Commerce and industry 

Illinois Department of Transportation 

Illinois State Toll Highway Authority 

Metra 

Northeastern Illinois Planning commission 

Nor t ran 

Pace 

Regional Transportation Authority 

Urban Mass Transportation Administration 



Purpose 

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new rapid 
transit line on a heavily traveled corridor which already had several transpor- 
tation alternatives, including auto, commuter rail, public and private bus 



-2- 

service, taxis and limousines. All of these modes of transportation were 
examined in a before/after study of travel characteristics to determine if a 
redistribution of riders occurred. Users of the rapid transit service were 
studied, keeping in mind the idea that all of them either switched from some 
other mode of travel.. or, in the case of persons new to the corridor, chose the 
new line over other alternatives. The reasons for this mode choice were 
determined. 

The world's busiest airport is located at the end of the extension and a 
major concentration of office, convention and hotel facilities has developed 
adjacent to two of the intermediate stations. This afforded an excellent 
opportunity to study reverse commuting and airport related travel in addition 
to the traditional Loop oriented inbound travel. 

The O'Hare rapid transit extension carries about 38,000 passengers per 
day (19,000 round trips). This is a small percentage of the total person-trips 
made into and through the O'Hare Corridor. This study also analyzed why many 
persons did not change their travel habits after the new line opened. 

Finally, this study showed how the O'Hare Corridor developed since the 
rapid transit extension was first announced. Changes in land use affecting 
the entire transportation network were determined. Commercial development of 
the corridor is far from complete and this fact was considered when the future 
of the rapid transit line was examined. 

History 

The Chicago Transit Authority Kennedy Rapid Transit Line was extended to 
O'Hare International Airport in September 1984. This was the most recent 
expansion of the city-wide system, which has grown in segments over the past 
90 years. As the northwest side of Chicago has grown and developed, so too 
has the rapid transit line, which has followed the outward migration of 
business, industry and the population. Illustration 1 on the next page shows 
the historical development of rapid transit serving this part of the city. 

Construction of the Metropolitan Vest Side Elevated Railroad began in 
1895. Initial service on this line extended from the downtown area west about 
two miles to Narshfield Ave. One of the railroad's three routes then branched 
off to the north to a terminal near Milwaukee Ave. Later that year the line 
was extended 2.7 miles Northwest to Logan Square. With this route extension 
the Metropolitan Elevated, began serving neighborhoods beyond the congested 
inner core of the near west and northwest sides. This new terminal was located 
in a rapidly growing neighborhood on the edge of the city. The Logan Square 
Station remained the end of the line for several decades. In 1897, northwest 
side rapid transit riders gained access to the greater downtown area with the 
opening of the Union Loop Elevated over Veils, Lake, Vabash. and Van Bur en 
Streets. Prior to 1897, all trains terminated just on the edge of the Central 
Business District. 

Service to the northwest side remained the same until 1951. At that 
time, the entire system underwent a simultaneous expansion and contraction of 
service. Several short routes were abandoned. Including a two mile northwest 




ILLUSTRATION 1 



- 1. METROPOLITAN MAIN LINE 
NORTHWEST BRANCH (MET) 

3. LOGAN SQUARE LINE 

4. HUMBOLDT PARK LINE 
i } 5. LOOP ELEVATED 



r 



1895 - 1958 
1895 - 1958 
1895- 



1895 - 1951 "j 
ji J 5. LOOP ELEVATED 1897 - 

^>-H6. MILWAUKEE/DEARBORN SUBWAY 1951- 

7. KENNEDY EXTENSION 1970 - 

8. O'HARE EXTENSION TO RIVER ROAD 1983 - 

9. O'HARE EXTENSION TO AIRPORT 1984 - 



m 




side branch line serving the Humboldt Park neighborhood. At about the same 
time, the new Milwaukee Ave . /Dearborn St. Subway was opened. This gave north- 
west side rapid transit riders direct access to downtown Chicago by subway, 
eliminating the roundabout Marshfield Ave. route into the Loop via the Garfield 
Park Elevated through the west side. 

During the 1950s and 1960s, the far northwest side of Chicago was rapidly 
developing in much the same way the Logan Square area had grown more than 50 
years earlier. Plans were made to extend the rapid transit route further into 
the newer neighborhoods, and in 1970, the Milwaukee Ave. line was extended 4.4 
miles to Jefferson Park. 

As this line began serving a much newer area of the city, plans were 
already being formulated to extend the rapid transit route even further to 
O'Hare International Airport. During this time, the Chicago Transit Authority 
encountered opposition from the Chicago and North Western Railroad, which 
operated a commuter railroad line paralleling the proposed rapid transit 
extension for several miles. Expansion plans for the area beyond Jefferson 
Park remained on hold until 1974 when the new Regional Transportation 
Authority began subsidizing all mass transit lines in the region. The 
objection of the CNW had been that thousands of riders would switch to the new 
rapid transit service, causing a major loss of revenue. The advent of the RTA 
subsidies removed that objection and plans were finalized for extending the 
route from Jefferson Park through the far northwest side, suburban Rosemont 
and then into a new terminal at O'Hare International Airport. 

Construction of the extension in the Kennedy Expressway median began 
in 1980. Over the past fifteen years this area east of the airport has been 
the scene of intense residential, office, commercial and hotel development. 
Much of this development was directly related to the proximity of the airport. 

The extension of service was completed as far as River Road in Rosemont 
in February, 1983. Construction delays in the subway section under the 
airport prevented the opening of the final link to the O'Hare terminal station 
until September, 1984. This latest expansion of the rapid transit system 
fulfills the same needs as the other service extensions did over the past 90 
years. Newer, fast growing areas on the fringe of the city are gaining an 
important mass transit link to the CBD and the rest of the city. In addition, 
the world's busiest airport is now the new terminal of the line. 



The O'Hare Corridor 

The O'Hare rapid transit extension was built in an already heavily 
traveled corridor, which extends from Jefferson Park in Chicago on the east to 
O'Hare Airport on the west. The corridor is defined as an area three miles 
north and south of the rapid transit line which runs in the median of the 
Kennedy Expressway and the airport access expressway. Contained within this 
corridor are several Chicago neighborhoods and suburban communities which have 
an aggregate population of 400,000 people. The corridor, shown in illustra- 
tion 2 on the next page, will be known in the after study report as the O'Hare 
Corridor. 






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:•:•:<•:•:■ 
■::-x:-:-: 




Transportation facilities include two Interstate highways, an airport 
access expressway, numerous arterial streets, two commuter rail lines, dozens 
of Chicago Transit Authority, Pace and Nortran bus routes and extensive 
airport oriented transit in the form of taxi, airport bus and limousine 
service. 

Over 305,000 persons are employed in this corridor and most of the jobs 
are located in and around O'Hare airport. Employment centers include office 
buildings, industrial sites, hotels, and the airport itself. 

Methodology 

Before Study 

The before study laid the groundwork for comparison of data before and 
after the O'Hare extension opened. The main activity was determining the usage 
of all of the existing types of transportation in the vicinity of the new line 
between Jefferson Park and O'Hare Airport. The O'Hare extension was expected 
to have an impact on all the other transportation modes, and the information 
to be gathered was vital to the analysis of shifting travel patterns. The 
data, in conjunction with information from the after study would also be use- 
ful in the study of potential service extensions on other rapid transit lines. 

The study of the O'Hare extension was a cooperative effort among the 
members of the task force. Bach agreed to provide the necessary data that 
CATS would use in the study. An explanation of the data requirements follows, 
along with a list of task force agencies and work assignments. 

Before study data collection included passenger counts on all public and 
private transit carriers that provided service in the area where the new rapid 
transit line was to be built. Usage of these modes of travel was expected to 
change and the passenger counts would provide the basis for before, interim 
and after comparisons. 

Counts of average daily travel on 15 highways converging on the O'Hare 
corridor were scheduled. This was to be a cooperative effort among the various 
highway oriented agencies in the task force. 

Various data were collected to determine travel time on the modes of 
travel that were being analyzed. These data included travel time studies on 
selected expressways and arterials, intersection delay studies in the vicinity 
of the new stations and schedules and timetables of the public and private 
transit carriers. 

Parking lot inventories and license plate/vehicle sticker surveys were 
conducted at 17 Chicago and North Western and Milwaukee Road commuter rail 
stations. This information was to be used in determining the market areas for 
each station and for determining the diversion away from commuter rail after 
the O'Hare extension opened. 



-7- 

Seven commuter rail stations were studied to determine the access modes 
used by rush hour passengers. This was accomplished by observing arrival 
patterns in the immediate vicinity of the stations. This information was to 
be used to supplement data from passenger surveys that would be conducted In 
the after study. 

A comprehensive land use study, which determined changes over 5 year 
periods, was conducted. Emphasis was on residential, commercial and industrial 
developments within one-half, and one mile radii of each proposed station on 
the O'Hare extension. The type of development and total land area were also 
determined. 

Finally, miscellaneous data on airline travel, airport parking and 
convention attendance were collected to aid in the analysis of the effects of 
the new line. A list of task force responsibilities follows in Figure 1. 

Figure 1 
Summary of Agency Work Assignments 

AGENCY WORK DESCRIPTION 

CATS Expressway Ramp Counts 

Intersection Delay study 
Railroad Boarding Counts 
Access Mode to Stations 
Taxi Passenger counts 
Commuter Parking Lot Usage 
City Sticker or State License 

Plate Recording 
Twenty-four Hour Machine counts 
Chicago 

DPW Twenty-four Hour Machine Counts 

Convention Location and Attendance 

Airports Parking and Passengers 

nipc Land Use Inventory 

CTA Passenger Counts on Bus Routes 

MORTRAN Passenger Counts on Bus Routes 

Pace Passenger Counts on Bus Routes 

Continental Bus Rider ship 

toll Authority volume counts 

Interim Study 

The CTA Vest /Northwest route, which formerly terminated at Jefferson Park 
on the northwest side of Chicago, was extended to River Road in suburban 
Rosemont on Sunday, February 27, 1983. Approximately one month later, the 
Interim study was begun. 

Since this was a partial opening of the line, with completion to O'Hare 
Airport expected some time later, no attempt was made to measure all of the 
items in the Before phase. The purposes of this report were to measure 
selected items in order to obtain an interim indication of the changes caused 
by the extension and to highlight any major problems which might have required 



operational changes. The task force determined that the interim study would 
be limited to intersection delays, expressway volumes, commuter train 
boardings, parking lot usage. RTA bus counts and CTA rapid transit and bus 
boarding counts. 

Intersection Delays - the average delay time for automobile traffic was 
measured at intersections along Harlem Avenue, Cumberland Avenue and River 
Road. Three of the new O'Hare extension stations are located on these roads. 
The delay studies were conducted north and south of the stations in order to 
monitor increases in traffic congestion caused by the new rapid transit 
stations. The Information was collected by CATS staff. 

Commuter Rail - Platform boarding counts were made between 6:30 AN and 
8:30 AM, at selected stations along the Milwaukee Road vest Line and the 
Chicago and North Western Northwest Line. The intent was to determine if 
there were any immediate changes in commuter rail ridership at stations located 
in the vicinity of the O'Hare extension. The CNV stations that were counted 
were: Cumberland: DesPlaines; Dee Road; Park Ridge; Edison Park, Norwood 
Park; Gladstone Park and Jefferson Park. On the Milwaukee Road Vest Line, 
platform counts were done at Franklin Park, River Grove, Elmwood Park and Mont 
Clare. The information was collected by CATS staff. Supplemental data were 
provided by the CNV. 

CTA Rapid Transit - Boarding counts were conducted at Jefferson Park and 
the four new stations on the O'Hare extension. The counts were done for 16 
hours daily over a one month period. The CTA conducted all counts. 

Suburban Bus - Daily ridership was counted on the thirteen suburban bus 
routes that began serving the new stations on the O'Hare extension. Data were 
supplied by Pace and Nor t ran. 

Highways - Traffic volumes on the Kennedy Expressway at the Nagle Avenue 
surveillance detector were provided by the Illinois Department of Transporta- 
tion. 



II. AFTER STUDY METHODOLOGY 

The O'Hare rapid transit extension was completed to the airport in 
September 1984, and the after study was scheduled to begin about ten months 
later. This allowed travel patterns to stabilize on the newer segment between 
River Road and the O'Hare terminal station. The after study was conducted over 
a period of July 1985 through November 1985. The study consisted of various 
elements, including: inventories of commuter rail and rapid transit parking 
facilities; vehicle sticker/ license plate surveys; bus and rail boarding 
counts; taxi occupancy counts; and surveys of commuter rail passengers, rapid 
transit passengers, O'Hare Airport employees and other corridor area employees. 
An updated land use inventory was also prepared. Data from these studies 
revealed how the new rapid transit line has affected the travel patterns of 
persons who have used any of the transportation alternatives in the O'Hare 
Corridor. 

Analysis of the data collected in the before and interim studies resulted 
in dropping certain elements from the after study. Generally, the Information 
was inconclusive and could not be used in preparation of the final report. 
Expressway ramp counts and Intersection delays were dropped from the after 
study because major reconstruction on arterials and expressway inter- 
changes had drastically altered roadway capacity and traffic flow in the 
immediate vicinity of the new stations. The study of observed access modes to 
commuter rail stations was revised because the task force decided to include a 
comprehensive survey of commuter rail passengers in the after study. This 
survey had several questions about station access. 

A survey of commuter rail passengers on the Milwaukee Road Vest Line was 
not undertaken. According to interim study passenger boarding counts, rider- 
ship on this line increased by 1 percent, however it was impossible to deter- 
mine whether the opening of the O'Hare extension had caused a change in 
ridership. At the time of the Interim Study attempts were made to increase 
Milwaukee Road ridership through reduced fares and improved service. In 
addition, a survey of commuters at the Mount Prospect station on the CNV 
Northwest Line was also removed from the after study due to the fact that no 
measurable change in ridership occurred when the new line opened. This was 
based on monthly revenue figures provided by the CNV. It was also decided to 
limit additional traffic counts based on a finding that the volume of traffic 
on the major roads was not increased by the O'Hare extension. Road 
reconstruction, particularly In the vicinity of the new stations, improved 
traffic flow and increased capacity. Finally, a review of convention 
attendance and airport parking statistics indicated O'Hare extension ridership 
was not affected by convention attendance and there was no significant effect 
on the number of parked cars at the airport. 



Parking Inventories 

All commuter rail station parking lots in the corridor were inventoried. 
Field personnel recorded the number of spaces and the number of parked 
vehicles in each lot. All of the lots that were inventoried in the before 
study were visited again, except for stations which had been dropped from 
consideration following the Interim Study. Inventories were also conducted at 
the two parking lots adjacent to the new rapid transit stations at River Road 
and Cumberland Avenue. The reason for the inventory was to determine if there 
had been a shift away from the commuter rail stations by those who drive. 

On street parking in the vicinity of the former Jefferson Park rapid 
transit terminal (and CNW station) was also re inventoried. The before study 
concentrated on streets with heavy commuter oriented parking. These included 
some streets with all-day parking meters and others, a bit further from the 
station, that had free parking. Only one small commuter parking lot existed 
at Jefferson Park at the time of the before study. By 1985, the parking lot 
owners had stopped providing exclusive commuter parking. A reduction in the 
number of vehicles parked in the vicinity of the station would indicate a 
shift away from Jefferson Park to new stations further west on the extension. 

Two of the four new rapid transit stations. River Road and Cumberland 
Avenue, were built with adjacent parking lots. The O'Hare terminal station 
was not designed to serve daily inbound commuters, so no commuter parking lots 
were built. The Harlem Avenue station has no parking facilities due to opposi- 
tion from the local community at the time the station was being designed. In 
order to discourage commuter parking on nearby streets, "Resident Parking Only" 
restrictions were instituted in the vicinity of the station. However, a few 
non-residential blocks were not covered by the restrictions, and many commuters 
quickly found them. These streets were included in the on-street parking 
inventory. 

License Plate/Vehicle Sticker survey 

In conjunction with the parking lot inventory, field personnel conducted 
a license plate/vehicle sticker survey of vehicles in all on and off street 
commuter parking facilities. The survey began shortly after 10:00 AM weekdays 
so that the rush hour commuters would already have entered the lot. All 
parked autos were checked for current vehicle stickers, which were tallied by 
city or town. Approximately 15% of the vehicles did not have a usable vehicle 
sticker. These were either out of date, from a far distant suburb or not 
displayed at all. In such cases, the license plate was recorded, instead of 
the vehicle sticker. Once the field sheets were in the office, the license 
plate numbers were looked up on the State of Illinois file of vehicle registra- 
tions to determine where the owner lived. The towns of origin were then 
ranked by frequency. These data were used to determine the market area of 
each rail station. Data from all of the parking studies were to be compared 
with the results of the before and interim studies. If auto drivers were 
switching from either the commuter rail stations or the Jefferson Park rapid 
transit station, these surveys would be the indicators. More information 
would be obtained in the commuter rail and rapid transit passenger surveys. 



-11- 

Taxi Counts 

Occupancy counts of taxis entering and leaving o'Hare International 
Airport were taken during the AM and PM rush hours. These counts, when 
compared with the before study, could give an indication If taxi usage had 
changed since the O'Hare extension opened. 

Data from Cooperating Agencies 

The before/after study of the O'Hare extension was a cooperative venture 
among various transportation planning agencies in the region. Much of the 
necessary data for this project were specially collected by these agencies. 
Highway traffic volumes in the O'Hare Corridor were provided by the Illinois 
Department of Transportation. The Chicago Transit Authority conducted special 
counts on all corridor bus routes and at all of the rapid transit stations 
along the extension. Similar passenger counts on the commuter railroads and 
suburban bus routes were provided by the Regional Transportation Authority 
through its Metra and Pace divisions. Nortran also contributed bus ridership 
statistics. Figures on airport bus ridership came from the Continental Air 
Transport Company. The Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission completed a 
comprehensive land use inventory in the O'Hare Corridor. 

CATS User Surveys 
Summary 

The major data collection effort in the O'Hare extension after study was 
a series of four travel characteristics surveys. They were designed to obtain 
detailed travel information from four distinct groups of travelers whose trips 
take them into the O'Hare Corridor on one or more of the available transporta- 
tion modes. Surveys were aimed at the riders of the O'Hare extension and three 
groups who basically do not use the line. These non-users include Chicago and 
North Western Railroad riders, O'Hare Airport employees who drive to work, and 
corridor area office and hotel employees, most of whoa also travel by auto. 

O'Hare rapid transit extension riders travel within the corridor and 
throughout the entire city of Chicago and some nearby suburbs. With direct 
airport access* the line also attracts riders from far distant places beyond 
the region. Many of the Chicago and North Western Railroad passengers 
originated within the O'Hare Corridor, but they made the choice not to use the 
new rapid transit line. Those persons who drive to work at the airport and 
those who work in buildings in the corridor are, for the most part, non-transit 
users. Surveys of the non-rapid transit riders yielded travel character- 
istics that were compared with those of persons who choose to use the line. 

All of the surveys were similar in nature. They included questions on 
current and past travel characteristics, reasons for preferring one mode of 
travel over another and a short personal profile of the respondent. Many of 
the questions were developed for two different purposes, trip characteristics 
analysis and for modeling. All four surveys contained similiar questions. 



-12- 

Rapid transit passengers had more detailed questions to answer because many of 
them had made changes in their travel habits since the O'Hare extension was 
opened. 

All of the surveys included origin and destination questions, although, 
for the employee surveys, the destination was already known. The origin and 
the destination were geo-coded to quarter square mile zones. Also included was 
information on the purpose of the trip. The trip purposes were the same for 
the surveys of transit riders and the responses include: work/work related: 
school; shopping; recreation; and other. Only work trips were involved in the 
employee surveys so the above list of trip purposes was not included. The 
overall travel time in minutes completed the basic trip outline. 

Another set of questions was asked only of rapid transit and commuter rail 
passengers. All access and egress modes for these rail trips were requested. 
The entire trip from origin to destination could then be analyzed as a series 
of mode changes and mode choices. Since rail transit, unlike auto travel, 
rarely provides door-to-door service, other modes of travel must be "linked" 
to this trip to adequately describe all of the traveling that is being done. 
A rail trip with the added characteristics of access and egress modes is then 
described in more complete detail. The additional details made a more 
complete analysis of this trip possible. 

These access and egress segments of the trip were further defined with 
questions about the total access time and total egress time. The respondents 
were then asked to split these times into walking time versus non-walking time. 
Rail transit trips that had occurred before the O'Hare extension opened were 
also subjected to these extra questions. In the end, extensive information 
was obtained about a trip that was originally described as "rail transit". 
These access/egress questions, while important in the analysis of travel 
characteristics, will also be very useful in the development of mode choice 
models. 

Once the trip was accurately described the respondents were asked why they 
preferred that particular type of transportation. O'Hare extension and Chicago 
and North Western passengers were asked why they preferred the mode they were 
using, while those who don't use rail transit (mostly auto drivers) were asked 
why they don't use the O'Hare extension. Finally, the Chicago and North 
Western passengers. O'Hare employees and the corridor employees were all asked 
if they ever use the extension and. if so. how often they use it. A set of 
travel characteristics could be generated for the occasional O'Hare extension 
rider. It should be noted, however, that travel patterns for this group of 
occasional users are difficult to analyze because their mode choice can vary 
from day to day. due to changing travel circumstances. 

All of the surveys were designed to identify persons who had been making 
the same trip prior to the opening of the extension. Those individuals who 
lived within the CTA service area and whose prior travel patterns were the 
same as today, had the opportunity to switch to the new rapid transit line. 
Identifying those who had the opportunity to switch to the extension allowed 
an opportunity to study the dynamics of mode choice. The reasons people had 
for their choice were requested elsewhere in the questionnaire. 



-13- 

Individual and household characteristics were determined In a series of 
questions in the profile section of the survey form. These questions included: 
home location, sex, age, race, occupation, income, family size, and automobile 
availability. The information was to be used for detailed analysis of travel 
characteristics. For instance, how does auto availability relate to mode 
choice or, are certain age groups more likely to use rapid transit? The 
profile would be used to introduce additional variables into the process of 
identifying and analyzing travel characteristics. An example of each 
questionnaire is in the appendix. 

All questionnaires were printed on 8 1/2" X 11" cards. The cards were 
folded in half with the questions on the inside. The card opened like a book 
and the front cover contained the CATS return address, the Business Reply Mail 
permit and the postage designation. On the back cover, OFPICIAL TRANSPORTATION 
SURVEY was printed in large letters. 

Postage was $0.29 per returned card. All questionnaires were to be mailed 
back to the Chicago Area Transportation Study postage paid. Upon receipt, they 
were sorted by station and then edited for usable and consistent answers. The 
trip origins, destinations and home locations were then geo-coded to quarter 
square mile sections. The responses were entered directly into the computer 
terminal, thus eliminating, the costly and time consuming coding and keypunching 
of each card. 

Rapid Transit Passenger Survey 

The rapid transit survey was conducted at the four new stations: Harlem 
Avenue; Cumberland Avenue; River Road; and the O'Hare terminal station. The 
former Jefferson Park terminal was also included in the survey, but only riders 
actually using the extension were given questionnaires. Only westbound board- 
ing and eastbound alighting passengers were surveyed at Jefferson Park. 
Approximately 90% of the riders at this station were not surveyed because the 
extension did not affect their travel habits. 

The survey was conducted for 12 hours on a single weekday at each station. 
All persons traveling on the line during the busiest hours could be surveyed. 
They were given questionnaires as they either entered or exited the station. 
The survey crew was stationed at the turnstiles and at the ticket agent booths. 
All passengers went past these points. At Jefferson Park, questionnaires were 
distributed on the platform so that the crew could give the cards only to those 
riders actually using the extension. There were 19,567 boarding passengers. 
Of these 15,519 (82%) received cards. See appendix for the questionnaire 
distribution and passenger count for each station. 

Chicago and North Western Passenger Survey 

The before study covered nine CNV stations from Mount Prospect to 
Jefferson Park. Information provided by the CNV Indicated that rldership at 
the Mount Prospect station did not change and this station was removed from 
the after study. The remaining eight stations were: Cumberland; Oes Plaines; 
Dee Road; Park Ridge; Edison Park; Norwood Park: Gladstone Park; and Jefferson 
Park. The after study covered all passengers boarding inbound trains between 
6:30 and 8:30 AM. Midday trains were surveyed on a sample basis. 



or flv. wo^,^ cou h « e a £«« "" ""j^ted. Be'ca^of " f d , <*>«1.<l on the 
station. Each wort«r aue 4uaceiy handle quest M„ ns , c c " is situation p~ 

°r take auestL^V% h i ? StrUCted t0 ^IT^lsl^^^^y 
obtained by addln, this coif Jf' *" accu «" ooun? It *" " ho dld ~t get 

itaas. SKST-ar-raHs ?=«£: " 

t',s^s,.<rl" S'^'^x^ r~ ~" '."S x~ 
rt,r £«K=%aj "iSs-53.- ; ~x;S- 
- » ■•« --XXTarss«a^irSs a-s a 

s ^vey ln this area was tt At* ?" parki <-9 and^ur??? l0ye * parkln 9 lot. 
Pass the cards ou to th* . "? the »^agerl of t h! "fff y * Th * <»* way to 

laor Survey — off* 
The survey of o • w 

— - - -""""• ™ a S'S'&~S™~ x,rr„ 



-15- 



III. CHANGES IN USAGB OF TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES 

The before study of the CTA O'Hare rapid transit extension concentrated 
on determining the usage of various modes of transportation in and through the 
O'Hare corridor. These inventories were then compared to similar data which 
were collected in the interim and after phases of this study. Some of the 
before study inventories were dropped, however, because the data were Inconclu- 
sive. Others were eliminated because the same information was to be obtained 
from after study surveys. A summary of before/after comparisons follows. 



Rldership 



Rapid Transit 



Projected usage (boardings and alight ings) of the four new stations on 
the O'Hare extension was 45,200 according to the final environmental impact 
statement. (Jefferson Park station usage is not included.) One year after 
the line was completed, total usage was 38,225 or 84.5% of the projection. 
This discrepancy was largely due to an overestimation of ridership at the 
O'Hare station. While 24,000 dally passengers were projected, the after study 
reveals that the station is used by 8,700 passengers, or 36.2% of the projected 
total. In contrast, the combined daily boardings and alight ings of the Harlem, 
Cumberland and River Road stations are 29,554 or 139% of the 21,200 projected 
riders. 

Boarding counts on the Jefferson Park (O'Hare) rapid transit line were 
conducted in all three phases of the study. Immediately after service was 
extended to River Road in February 1983, there was a 36% increase in boardings 
according to interim study counts. By October 1985, when the entire line out 
to O'Hare Airport had beea in service for over one year, total boardings had 
increased by another 29% over the interim count. The before/after comparison 
reveals a strong 75% increase in ridership. Figure 2, below, shows ridership 
changes by station during the three phases of the project. 

Figure 2 
Total Boardings Jefferson Park to O'Hare 
in the Before, Interim and After Phases 



Name of 
Station 

Jefferson Park 
Harlem Avenue 
Cumberland Avenue 
River Road 
O'Hare station 
Total Boardings 



Before Count 
November 1982 

16,200 



16.200 



Interim Count 


After Count 


March 1983 


October 1985 


10.954 


9,658* 


4.140 


5.355 


3.216 


5.512 


3.691 


3,775 


- 


4.000 


22.001 


28.300* 



Percent change in before/ interim counts ■ +36% 
Percent change in before/after counts * +75% 
* Jefferson Park passengers using only the O'Hare extension » 925 and 
total O'Hare extension boardings for all five stations * 19, 567 



The Jefferson Park station lost 6,542 passengers according to the before 
and after counts. This is a decrease of 40% and reflects the fact that much 
of the ridership was redistributed to the new, more convenient stations 



-16- 

further west. The River Road station had only a 2% increase in boardings 
between the interim and after studies. At Cumberland Avenue and Harlem Avenue 
the increases were 71% and 29% respectively. The reason the River Road count 
did not increase is that when the O'Hare Extension was opened all the way to 
the airport, the need to transfer to and from shuttle buses at River Road was 
eliminated, and airport travelers began boarding trains at O'Hare. Even with 
a loss of close to 1500 daily airport boardings, the River Road station posted 
a 2% increase in ridership. 

Parking 

Although no large parking facilities existed at the Jefferson Park 
terminal, metered on-street parking was available in the immediate vicinity of 
the station. There were also unlimited free spaces on residential side streets 
a few blocks away. In the before and after study the number of autos parked 
on selected streets was Inventoried and the origin of each was determined. 

The total number of vehicles was the basis for comparison with the after 
study, when many drivers were expected to switch to the new stations on the 
O'Hare extension. The determination of vehicle origins was used in 
preliminary market area analysis as a measure of the diversion of auto drivers 
away from this station. This is not a complete inventory of parked autos, as 
streets east of the station were not inventoried. Rather, it is a sample of 
selected streets. The data were analyzed, keeping in mind the fact that many 
cars actually belong to residents of the neighborhood. The inventory would, 
however, reveal the extent of parking by suburban drivers. 

Comparison of before and after vehicle origins shows a decrease in 
suburban autos on the streets around the Jefferson Park station. Figure 3 
shows that Chicago, Norridge, Des Plaines and Park Ridge were the most common 
origins of vehicles in both the before and after studies. In addition, there 
was a large number of vehicles from numerous other suburbs. The number of 
parked cars on the streets declined by 19% from the before study. If Chicago 
vehicles, many of which belong to local residents, are excluded, the decrease 
in suburban vehicles becomes 37% after the opening of the O'Hare extension. 

Figure 3 

Origins of cars Parked on the street 

Near the Jefferson Park Station 

Percent 
origin Before After Difference 

275 - 8% 

9 -59% 

7 -65% 

3 -73% 

89 -25% 

383 -19% 



108 -37% 

Net loss of 89 vehicles » 19% 

Net loss of 64 suburban vehicles ■ 37% 

While the new parking lots at Cumberland and River Road are very conven- 
ient to drivers, especially suburbanites, they fill up early and drivers must 
go elsewhere to park. A pattern of on-street parking has developed in the 



Chicago 


300 


Norridge 


22 


Des Plaines 


20 


Park Ridge 


11 


All others 


119 


Total 


472 


Suburban 




Vehicles Only 


172 



-17- 

vicinity of the Harlem Avenue station which was constructed without a parking 
facility because of neighborhood objections. Most streets are now posted with 
resident parking only signs. However, some non-residential streets that have 
no restrictions are being used by commuters. An inventory and license plate/ 
vehicle sticker survey were conducted at this location and the results are 
shown below in Figure 4. 

The communities with the largest number of vehicles at Harlem are 
Chicago, Norridge. Des Plaines and Park Ridge. At Jefferson Park, the 
greatest number of vehicles came from these same four communities. It is 
likely that many of those drivers have shifted to the more convenient Harlem 
Avenue station, which also has free parking. Figure 4 shows that the number 
of suburban vehicles from Norridge, Des Plaines and Park Ridge approximates 
the number of vehicles from those communities that were lost in the Jefferson 
Park after study parking inventory. 

Figure 4 

Comparison of Vehicles Parked on the Street 

at Harlem Avenue with the Decline of 

Vehicles Parked on the Street at Jefferson Park 





Vehicles 


Parked 


Number of Vehicles 


Origin 


at Harlem Avenue 


Lost at Jefferson Park 


Chicago 


97 




25 


Norridge 


12 




13 


Des Plaines 


11 




13 


Park Ridge 


10 




8 


All Others 


_83 




30 


Total 


213 




89 



The Cumberland Avenue and River Road rapid transit stations were each 
constructed with a 750 car parking facility. These lots were inventoried and 
found to be at capacity midway through the AM rush period. In addition, there 
were numerous illegally parked vehicles in each lot. The origin of each 
vehicle was determined. Chicago. Norridge. Des Plaines and Park Ridge 
accounted for 40% of the 1,526 parked cars at both stations with the remaining 
60% came from 62 different suburbs mostly west and northwest of O'Hare 
Airport. Figure 5 shows the specific communities of origin of two-thirds of 
the vehicles. 

Figure 5 

After Study Inventory of Vehicles Parked 

at Rapid Transit Station Lots 

Cumberland Avenue 



Origin of 






Vehicles 


Count 


Percent 


Park Ridge 


139 


18% 


Chicago 


133 


17% 


Norridge 


59 


8% 


Des Plaines 


50 


7% 


Schaumburg 


25 


3% 


Miles 


24 


3% 


Hoffman Estates 


23 


3% 


Mount Prospect 


23 


3% 


Arlington Heights 


18 


2% 


River Grove 


13 


2% 


All Others 


267 


-34% 


Total 


774 


100% 



-18- 

Figure 5 (continued) 

After Study Inventory of Vehicles Parked 

at Rapid Transit Station Lots 



River 


Road 




Des Plaines 


175 


23% 


Mount Prospect 


90 


12% 


Chicago 


48 


6% 


Schiller Park 


40 


5% 


Elk Grove Village 


39 


5% 


Arlington Heights 


28 


4% 


Franklin Park 


28 


4% 


Hoffman Estates 


20 


3% 


Bensenville 


13 


2% 


Prospect Heights 


13 


2% 


Schaumburg 


13 


2% 


Wheeling 


13 


2% 


All Others 


232 


30% 



CTA and Suburban Bus 



Background 

In the before study CTA and suburban bus passenger counts were conducted 
on routes serving the Jefferson Park station and in areas where the O'Hare 
extension was being built. The intention was to determine changes in rider- 
ship once the new line opened. A revision of the feeder bus system at 
Jefferson Park was undertaken, however, and while many of the routes to this 
station were retained, service levels have been changed. 

The stations on the new O'Hare extension are being served by a combination 
of CTA and suburban feeder bus routes which are shown in Illustration 3 on the 
next page. Some routes formerly went to Jefferson Park, others served commuter 
rail stations in Park Ridge and Des Plaines and were rerouted to feed the new 
rapid transit line. Finally, a few new routes were created. Formerly, there 
were 17 feeder routes serving the Jefferson Park station. Today there are 14 
routes (11 CTA and 3 suburban). The four new stations are now served by 20 
feeder bus routes. Figures 6 and 7 show the bus routes at Jefferson Park 
before the O'Hare extension opened and the redistribution of routes after the 
line was completed. 



FEEDER BUS ROUTES 
SERVING THE O'HARE EXTENSION 



ILLUSTRATION 3 



X X I 




-20- 

Figure 6 

Jefferson Park Feeder Bus Routes 

Prior to O'Hare Extension 

Total Route Ridership 



Name of 


Route 




Average Weekday 


r Service In 


Operator 


Number 


Name of Route 


RidershiD 


O'Hare Corridor 


CTA 


40 


O'Hare Express 




3.169 


Yes 


CTA 


56 


Milwaukee Avenue 




25,009 


No 


CTA 


56A 


North Milwaukee Avenue 




3.639 


Yes 


CTA 


64 


Foster/Lawrence 




8,229 


Yes 


CTA 


68 


Northwest Highway 




5,633 


Yes 


CTA 


69 


Cumberland Express 




1,707 


Yes 


CTA 


81 


Lawrence Avenue 




18,819 


No 


CTA 


85 


Central Avenue 




19.015 


NO 


CTA 


85A 


North Central Avenue 




2,726 


No 


CTA 


88 


Higglns Road 




3,894 


Yes 


CTA 


92 


Foster Avenue 




8,333 


NO 


Nor t ran 


209 


Woodfield-DesPlaines-Jefferson 


3,650 


Yes 


Nor t ran 


221 


DesPlalnes-Jefferson Park 




1.337 


Yes 


Nor t ran 


223 


Elk Grove Village Express 




333 


Yes 


Nortran 


225 


Jefferson Park-Howard 




380 


No 


Nor t ran 


226 


Oakton 




1.581 


No 


Nortran 


270 


Golf Mill-Jefferson Pk. -Milwaukee 


4.519 


Yes 



Figure 7 

Jefferson Park Feeder Bus Routes 

After the Opening of the O'Hare Extension 

Total Route Ridership 



Name of 


Route 




Average Veekday 


Service In 


Operator 


Number 


Name of Route 


RidershiD 


O'Hare Corridor 








Before 


After 






CTA 


40 


O'Hare Express 


Service 


discontinued 


NA 


CTA 


56 


Milwaukee Avenue 


25.009 


21,793 




NO 


CTA 


56A 


North Milwaukee Avenue 


3,639 


1,546 




Yes 


CTA 


64 


Foster/Lawrence 


Service 


discontinued 


NA 


CTA 


68 


Northwest Highway 


5.633 


3,779 




Yes 


CTA 


69 


Cumberland Express 


Service 


discontinued 


NA 


CTA 


81 


Lawrence Avenue 


18.819 


17,642 




NO 


CTA 


81V 


Vest Lawrence Avenue 


New 


3,198 




Yes 


CTA 


85 


Central Avenue 


19.015 


16,273 




NO 


CTA 


85A 


North Central Avenue 


2,726 


2.072 




NO 


CTA 


88 


Higgins Road 


3,894 


3.651 




Yes 


CTA 


91 


Austin 


14.505 


18.480 




NO 


CTA 


92 


Foster Avenue 


8.333 


7.959 




NO 


CTA 


92V 


Vest Foster Avenue 


New 


746 




Yes 


Nortran 


225 


Jefferson Park-Howard 


380 


382 




No 


Nortran 


226 


Oakton 


1,581 


1.710 




NO 


Nortran 


270 


Golf Mill-Jefferson 














Pk. -Milwaukee 


4,519 


4.585 




Yes 



-21- 

Five of the fourteen routes still serve the O'Hare corridor, mostly in 
the two miles between Jefferson Park and the new Harlem Avenue station. Two 
routes. Northwest Highway (#68) and Higgins (#88). run even further west beyond 
Harlem Avenue. Two routes. Higgins (#88) and West Foster (#92V) serve both 
the Jefferson Park and Harlem Avenue stations. Three routes were taken out of 
service. These were: the O'Hare Express (#40), which was originally rerouted 
to the River Road station and later eliminated when the O'Hare extension was 
completed to the airport; the Foster/Lawrence route (#64); and the Cumberland 
Express (#69), an expressway run to Jefferson Park which was eliminated when 
the new Cumberland Avenue station was opened. Finally, three suburban routes, 
Woodfield-DesPlaines-Jefferson Park (#209), Park Ridge- Jefferson Park (#221) 
and the Elk Grove Village Express (#223) were restructured to begin service to 
the new stations on the O'Hare extension. A list of routes serving the new 
line follows in Figure 8. 

Figure 8 

Feeder Bus Routes at O'Hare Extension Stations 

Total Route Ridership 







Harlem Avenue 






Name of 


Route 




Average Veekday R 


idershii 


Operator 


Number 


Name 'of Route 


Before 


After 


CTA 


69 


Foster/East River 


1.707 


7,327 


CTA 


88 


Higgins Road 


3,894 


3.651 


CTA 


90 


Harlem Avenue 


6,237 


5.891 


CTA 


90N 


North Harlem Avenue 


New 


1,061 


CTA 


92V 


Vest Foster Avenue 


New 


746 


Nortran 


209 


woodfle Id-Harlem 


3,650 


3.077 


Nortran 


228 


North Harlem 

Cumberland Avenue 


New 

i 


932 


Name of 


Route 




Average Veekday R 


idershii 


Operator 


Number 


Name of Route 


Before 


After 


CTA 


69 


Foster/East River 


1.707 


7,327 


CTA 


81V 


Vest Lawrence 


New 


3,198 


Nortran 


240 


Park Ridge-Dee Road 


605 


710 


Nortran 


241 


Park Ridge-Greenwood 


796 


638 


Nortran 


290 


Touhy 


3,700 


4.871 


Pace 


331 


Cumberland/5th Avenue 


1.528 


2.004 



Figure 8 (continued) 
Feeder Bus Routes at O'Hare Extension Stations 



River Road 



Nor t ran 
Nor t ran 



Nor t ran 
Nor t ran 



Name of Route 

80W West Irving Park Road 

221 West DesPlaines-River Road 

222 Rosemont Industrial- 

River Rd. CTA-Horizon 

223 Elk Grove Village Express 
230 DesPlaines 

325 25th Avenue 



Average Weekday Ridership 
Before After 



2,092 
1.337 

New 

333 
262 



1,827 
602 

294 

700 
719 

420 



Name of Route 
Operator Number 



Nor t ran 



Pace 



220 



330 



' Hare 

Name of Route 
Glenview-DesPlaines-O' Hare 
Mannhe im- LaGr ange 



Average Weekday Ridership 
Before After 



609 



945 



When the O'Hare extension opened, two new bus routes were created, North 
Harlem (#228) and Rosemont Industrial-River Road CTA-Horizon (#222). Other 
routes were restructured and realigned, especially Foster-Lawrence (#64). This 
rectangular looping route was split to serve areas to the north and south of 
the extension. After the realignment of service, three routes, Foster-East 
River (#69), Higgins (#88) and West Foster (#92V) each began serving two rapid 
transit stations. Greater operating efficiencies have resulted because of both 
the realignments and the coordination of headways on competing routes. 
Finally, two routes, Glenview-DesPlaines-O'Hare (#220) and Mannheim-LaGrange 
(#330). continue to serve the airport and now provide feeder service to the 
O'Hare station. 

Analysis of Bus Ridership Trends 

Bus ridership data that were collected in the before study inventories 
concentrated on the total ridership on selected routes. This lends itself to 
a general overview of ridership trends. The after study counts were all 
conducted prior to the CTA fare increases effective February 9, 1986. 

Six of the bus routes serving the Jefferson Park station extend into the 
O'Hare Corridor. Two of these routes were created after the new line opened. 
Before and after counts exist for four of these routes and generally, there is 
a decline in ridership. Transit users who live northwest of Jefferson Park 
can take buses to either this station or Harlem Avenue because the feeder 
routes actually serve the same neighborhoods. Jefferson Park routes that 
compete with the Harlem Avenue feeder bus routes have lost ridership. These 
routes are North Milwaukee (#56A), Northwest Highway (#68) and Higgins (#88). 
Because of the projected loss of ridership. headways on the affected Jefferson 
Park routes were increased. Ridership on a fourth route. Golf Mill-Jefferson 



-23- 

Park-Milwaukee (#270), which runs slightly north of the city limits remains 
unchanged. This may be due to coordination with route #56A. See Figure 9 for 
before/after ridership comparisons. 

Figure 9 

Ridership Trends on Jefferson Park Feeder Bus Routes 

That Continue to Serve the O'Hare Corridor 

Total Route Ridership 





Average Dail 


v RidershiD 


Percent 


Route 


Before 


After 


Change 


North Milwaukee (#56A) 
Northwest Highway (#68) 
Higgins (#88) 
Total 


3.639 
5.633 
3.894 
13.166 


1.546 
3,779 
3,651 
8,976 


-58% 
-33% 
- 6% 
-32% 


Golf Mi 11- Jefferson Park- 
Milwaukee (#270) 


4,519 


4,585 


+ 1% 



Bus routes serving the, Harlem Avenue station, at first glance, do not show 
a consistent pattern of ridership increases. However, closer examination of 
the data shown in Figure 6 explains what is happening to the ridership. The 
Harlem route (#90) shows a 6% decline in the after count. However, after the 
O'Hare extension opened the original route was split into #90 and #90N (North 
Harlem). Together, these two routes serve 11% more riders than the old Harlem 
(#90) route. In addition, a new suburban route. North Harlem (#228). adds 
additional riders to the Harlem Avenue corridor. 

The Higgins (#88) bus route serves the Jefferson Park and Harlem Avenue 
stations and in the previous section this route was shown to have lost riders 
because it competes with other routes for patronage. Finally, the Woodf ield- 
Harlem route (#209) shows a 16% decrease In ridership. This route formerly 
served Jefferson Park and it ran through Des Plalnes, Park Ridge and the far 
northwest side of Chicago. After the O'Hare extension opened persons living 
or working along route #209 had the option of using these buses to go to the 
Harlem Avenue station or other bus service in the area which would bring 
them to either the River Road or Cumberland Avenue stations. Again, this 
route competes with other, more direct feeder service in the O'Hare corridor. 
See Illustration 3. 

Four Cumberland Avenue feeder routes existed before the O'Hare extension 
opened but never served rapid transit riders. Two routes. Park Ridge-Dee Road 
(#240) and Park Ridge-Greenwood (#241), formerly served only the CNV commuter 
rail stations in Park Ridge, but they have since been rerouted to also feed 
the Cumberland Avenue rapid transit station, combined ridership on the two 
lines is about the same in the before/after counts, but a decline in CNV 
passenger boardings at Park Ridge gives an indication that riders on routes 
#240 and #241 are choosing the rapid transit alternative over commuter rail. 



-24- 

The Touhy Avenue route (#290) was extended to begin feeding the Cumberland 
Avenue station in addition to being a major east-west route between Park Ridge 
and the Howard rapid transit terminal in Chicago. Ridership increased by 32% 
after the route was extended. The Cumber land/5th Avenue route (#331) also 
existed prior to the O'Hare extension. This route was shortened and no longer 
serves CNW, but now terminates at the Cumberland Avenue station. Even though 
the route was shortened, ridership has increased by 31%. These four feeder 
routes (#240, #241, #290 and #331) have proven to be very popular, showing a 
ridership gain of 24% in the after study counts. (See Figure 8.) 

Two River Road feeder routes. West Irving Park Road (#80W) and Vest Des 
Plaines-River Road (#221) have lost riders. The combined loss is 29%. Route 
#221 formerly fed Jefferson Park but was cut back to River Road when the 
O'Hare line was extended. Local service in the O'Hare corridor east of River 
Road was replaced by other routes causing a drop in this route's ridership. 
West Irving Park (#80W) is basically an east-west service that competes with 
other routes that feed the Cumberland Avenue, Harlem Avenue and Jefferson Park 
stations. These other stations are better served by the more direct 
north-south feeder routes. (See Figure 8.) 

Three River Road routes have gained riders in the after counts. They are 
the Elk Grove Village Express (#223), Des Plaines (#230) and 25th Avenue 
(#325). The Elk Grove Village Express formerly operated out of Jefferson Park 
via the Kennedy Expressway. It was rerouted to River Road, which resulted in 
a shorter bus ride to the industrial park that it serves. Ridership has gone 
up by 110%. The Des Plaines route (#230) formerly served the CNW station in 
that community and it was restructured to feed the O'Hare extension at River 
Road also. Riders can now choose which rail service they want to use, and 
declining usage of the CNW station indicates that rapid transit is preferred 
over commuter rail. Ridership has increased by 174% since this route began 
serving the River Road station. Finally, the 25th Avenue route was extended 
north from suburban Schiller Park to begin feeding this station and ridership 
has grown by 508%. (See Figure 8.) 

Generally, the bus routes that feed the O'Hare extension stations have 
shown increased ridership according to after study passenger counts. Routes 
that have lost riders tend to serve both the O'Hare Corridor and the Jefferson 
Park station. Competing* more direct bus service to other O'Hare extension 
stations exists side by side with these routes in some neighborhoods. Riders 
seem to have chosen the more direct routes. 



Commuter Rail 

Ridership 

The Chicago and North Western Northwest Line and the Milwaukee Road West 
Line were expected to lose riders when the O'Hare extension opened. In order 
to measure the change in ridership, before, interim and after boarding counts 
were conducted on selected inbound AM rush period trains. 



-25- 

Boarding counts for all three phases are shown in Figure 10 for the CNV. 
The before counts established the base for measuring changes changes in rider- 
ship in the interim and after phases. Shortly after the O'Hare extension 
opened, the CNV made ridership estimates based on revenue and determined that 
approximately 393 riders had stopped using the nine stations being studied. 
This amounted to a loss of about 6% of the ridership at these stations. 

The interim study boarding counts at eight stations were conducted within 
a month after the O'Hare extension opened. The trains that were counted in the 
before study were sampled again. A decrease of 143 riders (5%) was noted. By 
the time the after study took place the CNV had reduced the number of AM rush 
hour trains serving the O'Hare corridor. It was no longer possible to count 
the same trains, but the 6:30 AM to 8:00 AM time frame remained the same. 
Inbound AM peak boardings were down by 20% or 604 riders. This is not the 
total number of lost riders, as only a portion of the daily trains was sampled. 
Daily ridership at the 8 stations declined from 5,396 in 1981 to 3,969 in 1985, 
a decrease of 26% while fares remained the same. 

Figure 10 

Comparison of AM Peak Hour 

station Boarding counts 

CNV Northwest Line 



Name of 


Total Boardings 


Inbound 6: 


:30 AM-8:00 AM 


Before/After 


Station 


Before 


Interim 


After 


Percent Chanae 


Cumberland 


494 


551 


414 


-16% 


Des Plaines 


943 


859 


671 


-29% 


Dee Road 


312 


251 


300 


- 4% 


Park Ridge 


680 


666 


538 


-21% 


Edison Park 


265 


246 


212 


-20% 


Norwood Park 


138 


127 


118 


-14% 


Gladstone Park 


63 


58 


42 


-33% 


Jefferson Park 
Total Boardings 


174 
3.069 


168 
2.926 


170 
2,465 


- 2% 

-20% 



Interim Study net loss * 143 (5%) riders in the AM peak. 
After Study net loss - 604 (20%) riders in the AM peak. 

In the before study, Milwaukee Road Vest Line boarding counts were 
conducted as far west as Itasca. However, based on the fact that the CNV 
ridership had remained unchanged west of the Cumberland station, the decision 
was made to conduct interim boarding counts only at the four Milwaukee Road 
stations that were closest to the O'Hare extension. These were: Franklin 
Park; River Grove; Slmwood Park and Mont Clare. Surprisingly, the interim 
count showed a gain of six riders in the AM inbound rush period. Because of 
this count and the fact that the RTA and the Milwaukee Road were actively 
trying to increase ridership through improved service and fare reductions, 
this rail line was dropped from further consideration. See Figure 11 for 
before/ interim ridership comparisons. 



-26- 

Figure 11 

Comparison of AM Peak Hour 

Station Boarding Counts 

Milwaukee Road Vest Line 



Name of 


Total 


Boardings 


Inbound 


6:30 AM-8 


:00 AM 


Before/Interim 


Station 




Before 




Interim 




Percent Chanae 


Itasca 




350 




- 




- 


Wood Dale 




328 




- 




- 


Besenvllle 




363 




- 




- 


Mannheim 




13 




- 




- 


Franklin Park 




299 




297 




-1% 


River Grove 




150 




144 




-4% 


Elmwood Park 




330 




360 




+8% 


Mont Clare 




218 




_202 




-7% 


Total Boardings 




2.051 




1,003 







Excluding Itasca 
through Mannheim 997 1,003 +1% 

interim Study net increase » 6 (1%) riders. 

Parking Inventories 

Parking lot inventories and license plate/vehicle sticker surveys were 
conducted at 14 of the 17 commuter rail stations in the before study, since 
ridership did not decline at nine stations, further work in the after study 
was not necessary. The remaining eight stations were all on the CNV and only 
five of these had large parking facilities. They were Edison Park, Park 
Ridge, Dee Road, Des Plaines and Cumberland. Parking studies were only 
conducted at these stations. 

Parking lots were initially inventoried to determine capacity and occu- 
pancy rates, which would be used as a base for comparison in the after study. 
Figure 12 shows a decline of 297 parked vehicles, which is a 23% loss for the 
five stations. Individual stations showed 17% to 42% declines in the number 
of parked autos. 

Figure 12 

Before and After Comparisons of 

Vehicles Parked at CNV Northwest Line stations 

Five Station Summary 

Name of 
Station 
Edison Park 
Park Ridge 
Dee Road 
Des Plaines 
Cumberland 
Total 



Before 


After 




Count 


Count 


Percent Change 


173 


128 


-26% 


368 


214 


-42% 


89 


102 


+15% 


323 


267 


-17% 


326 


271 


-17% 


1.279 


982 


-23% 



Net loss 297 vehicles (-23%) at five stations. 



-27- 

The occupancy rates of the parking lots also declined by 8%. Figure 13 
shows that occupancy in the before study was 81%, but the loss of close to 300 
vehicles caused this rate to decline to 73% after the O'Hare extension opened. 
At Dee Road, the slight increase in boardings was reflected in an increase in 
occupancy in the after study. While Park Ridge has lost a substantial number 
of riders, the parking lots appear to have a higher occupancy rate in the 
after study. This is due to a net loss of 159 parking spaces between the 
before and after studies. Fewer available spaces caused the occupancy rate to 
increase. Actually, the number of parked cars decreased from 368 to 214. 

Figure 13 

Before and After Comparisons of 

Parking Lot Occupancy Rates on the CNW 





Before 


After 




station 


Occupancy 


Occupancy 


Percent Chanqe 


Edison Park 


86% 


63% 


-23% 


Park Ridge 


75% 


78% 


+ 3%* 


Dee Road 


66% 


78% 


+12%** 


Des Plaines 


84% 


75% 


- 9% 


Cumberland 


81% 


69% 


-12% 


Total 


81% 


73% 


- 8% 



Overall decline in parking lot occupancy ■ -8% 
* Net loss of 159 parking spaces. After occupancy compared with before 
capacity would be 49%. 
** Number of parked cars Increased by 13 in after study. 

In conjunction with the parking inventories, the origins of the parked 
cars were determined in both the before and after studies. Preliminary market 
areas were established and information was available for the analysis of mode 
changing after the O'Hare extension opened. Five stations had the bulk of the 
parking facilities on the cnw, and according to before/after comparisons in 
Figure 14, autos from four communities, Des Plaines, Park Ridge, Mount Prospect 
and Chicago accounted for 70% of the 1,279 vehicies in the inventory. The 
after study inventory revealed that these same four communities are still the 
origins of 65% of the 982 parked vehicles. Overall usage of the CNV parking 
lots declined by 23% or 297 vehicles. The above communities show a loss of 253 
parked auto* out of a total reduction of 297. 

Figure 14 

Comparison of Origins of Autos Parked 

in Chicago and North Western Lots 





Before 


Percent 


After 


Percent 


Before/After 


origin 


Studv 


of Total 


Studv 


of Total 


Decline 


Des Plaines 


353 


27% 


289 


29% 


-18% 


Park Ridge 


283 


22% 


180 


18% 


-36% 


Mount Prospect 


137 


11% 


99 


10% 


-28% 


Chicago 


123 


10% 


75 


8% 


-39% 


All Others 


383 


30% 


339 


35% 


-11% 


Total 


1.279 


100% 


982 


100% 


-23% 



Overall decline in parked vehicles ■ 23%. 



Taxicabs at O'Hare Airport 

Field crews counted taxis entering and leaving O'Hare Airport during the 
AM and PM rush periods in both the before and after studies. The results of 
this study proved to be inconclusive. The effect of the O'Hare extension on 
taxi usage was difficult to measure using the above methodology. Daily and 
seasonal fluctuations in traffic make it impossible to determine a typical 
day. Even the same date a year later would be subject to many uncontrollable 
variables, such as bad weather, convention traffic, expressway congestion and 
fare increases. While the above information is inconclusive, the survey of 
rapid transit passengers at O'Hare station proved to be a more effective 
measure of the effect of the O'Hare extension on taxi usage. 

Continental Air Transport 

Ridershlp on continental Air Transport bus routes between O'Hare Airport 
and the Chicago CBD has declined from 102,372 passengers in September 1982 to 
75,571 in September 1985. This is a decrease of 26% since the O'Hare 
extension opened. The after study counts were all completed prior to the 
Continental fare increases effective January 12, 1986. 



Inventory Summary 

The above inventories indicate that the O'Hare extension has affected the 
use of the other modes of transportation in the O'Hare corridor. Usage of the 
old Jefferson Park terminal has declined by 40% as riders switched to new 
stations on the line. The restructuring of the feeder bus network has caused 
changes in station access via CTA and suburban buses and ridershlp has tended 
to increase on routes serving the new stations. Commuter rail ridershlp has 
dropped by 20% in the AM rush period, especially at stations where feeder bus 
routes were extended to begin serving the rapid transit line in addition to 
the CNV. Total daily boardings have decreased by 26%. Finally, parking has 
declined at CNW stations and on the streets around Jefferson Park as commuters 
have begun to use the new park and ride lots at Cumberland Avenue and River 
Road. Also, a pattern of on-street parking has developed near the Harlem 
Avenue station despite attempts to restrict commuter parking in the immediate 
vicinity of the station. 

The introduction of convenient, frequent and inexpensive rail transit into 
a heavily traveled corridor has not only caused changes in the travel patterns 
of transit users but has also introduced many new riders to the system. This 
is borne out by the fact that ridershlp in the O'Hare Corridor has grown by 
75% since the new line was completed. 



-29- 



IV. RAPID TRANSIT PASSENGER SURVEY 

The survey of rapid transit passengers using the five O'Hare extension 
stations was conducted to determine current and prior travel patterns in the 
O'Hare corridor. Riders were surveyed to find out if they had changed from 
some other mode of travel at the time the new line was put into service. The 
reasons for choosing to travel on the O'Hare extension were also determined. 

In addition, various details of the trips the respondents were making at 
the time of the survey were obtained along with personal and household 
characteristics. The survey also provided a basis for comparison with the 
characteristics of O'Hare airport/airline employees whose travel patterns were 
determined in a separate survey. 

Prior Travel Patterns 

According to survey statistics, 55% of the individuals using the O'Hare 
extension had made similar trips by some other mode of transportation before 
the new line opened. Figure 15 shows the former modes and the percent 
distribution of riders who switched from each. The statistics represent 
former travel via a single 'mode from origin to destination. Access to rail 
stations is not included. Former commuter rail and rapid transit travel is 
shown as single mode trips. It is reasonable to assume that the prior travel 
patterns of those respondents who switched modes would be similar to the 
remaining 45% of the respondents if they too had prior travel. 

Figure 15 
Former Mode of Travel 





Percent Distribution 




of 


Riders Who 




switched Modes 


Rapid Transit 




45%* 


Auto 




17% 


commuter Rail 




14% 


CTA BUS 




12% 


Taxi 




4% 


Continental Air 






Transport 




3% 


Suburban Bus (Pace) 




3% 


Other 




2% 


van Pool 




0% 


walked 




__0% 



Total 100% 



♦Former rapid transit riders previously used 
non-O* Hare extension stations 



-30- 
Rapld Transit 

Rapid transit was formerly used by the 45% of the O'Hare extension riders 
who switched modes. Most of these Individuals had been using the Jefferson 
Park terminal prior to 1983 when they began using the newer stations on the 
O'Hare extension. While technically the mode of travel is still the same, 
switching to the new stations is considered a mode change in this analysis. 

The Jefferson Park station, prior to the extension of service, was the 
terminal for 11 CTA and 6 suburban feeder bus routes. Ten of these routes ran 
in the O'Hare corridor, which was not served by rapid transit at that time. 
When the new line opened to River Road in 1983, 6,000 of the 16,200 boarding 
passengers at Jefferson Park switched to the new stations. 

Auto 

Former auto trips (auto driver and auto passengers) represent about 17% 
of the O'Hare extension riders who changed modes after the new line opened. 
This represents travel exclusively by auto between point A and point B. 
Access to commuter rail or other rapid transit is not included in these 
statistics. Given the fact that the average daily traffic on the Kennedy 
Expressway at Cumberland Avenue totals 165,500 vehicles per day, the new rapid 
transit service has had little effect on the volume of street traffic. 

Commuter Rail 

Fourteen percent of the O'Hare extension riders who changed their travel 
patterns are former commuter rail passengers. This figure represents more 
riders than were determined in the before and after counts on the CNV 
Northwest Line. There are two reasons for this. First, those counts included 
only selected rush hour trains. Second, as shown in Illustration 4 on the 
next page, many former commuter rail riders live west of the O'Hare corridor 
and used stations not included in the study. The existence of the park and 
ride lots at the Cumberland Avenue and River Road stations has attracted many 
commuter rail riders from those areas. 

CTA Bus 

Twelve percent of the O'Hare extension riders with prior travel patterns 
are former exclusive CTA bus users. These riders did not transfer to rapid 
transit or commuter rail; rather, their trips were via CTA bus from origin to 
destination. 

Taxi 

Respondents who formerly traveled by taxi are almost exclusively airline 
travelers using the O'Hare station, but this mode was rarely reported by 
respondents at' the other stations on the line. Because of this, former taxi 
users constitute 4% of the total prior travelers. 



Continental Air Transport 

Former Continental Air Transport bus riders are almost entirely airline 
travelers using the O'Hare station. Some airline employees reported using 
these buses but it was determined that their transportation to and from the 
airport was provided through a special contract between the airlines and the 
bus company. For purposes of this study, these employee trips are included in 
the "other" category. The airline travelers who used to ride the continental 
buses amount to 3% of all the riders on the new line who changed their travel 
patterns. 

Suburban Bus 

Former suburban bus riders represent 3% of the O'Hare extension riders 
who changed their mode of travel. No rail access/egress travel is included in 
this figure. Before the O'Hare extension opened there were four suburban bus 
routes operating north and northwest from Jefferson Park and even though these 
were feeder routes, the possibilities for local travel did exist in the O'Hare 
corridor. 

Other 

O'Hare extension passengers who formerly used other modes of travel make 
up only 2% of the total boardings. These trips involved only O'Hare Airport 
travel mostly via Chicago limousines or the Continental Air Transport buses 
mentioned above. 

Multiple Former Modes Reported 

One group of O'Hare extension riders, airline travelers using the O'Hare 
station, tended to report more than one prior mode of travel. This rarely 
occurred, however, among the airport/airline workers who also use this station, 
or at any other stations on the line. 

Airline travelers who switched modes often reported that they formerly 
used taxis. Continental Air Transport buses and. to a lesser extent, autos and 
rapid transit. Therefore, the frequency with which these modes were reported 
did not match the number of respondents who had changed their mode of travel. 
The explanation is that airline travelers have had several options to choose 
from when going to and from the airport. The mode of travel varied from one 
trip to another, perhaps depending on the availability of autos, buses or 
taxis at the time the airport trip was made. 

It was necessary to show the frequency with which the different modes 
were formerly used in order to remain consistent with the data from the other 
stations. Those respondents who took only taxis or Continental Air Transport 
buses, for example, formed the base ridership of these modes. Those 
respondents with multiple former modes were then factored to represent the 
frequency with which the modes were used. 



variations bv Station 

Moving from east to west on the O'Hare extension, the distribution of 
prior modes differs according to the characteristics of the neighborhoods 
served by the line. These neighborhoods range from densely developed 
commercial/residential around the In-city Jefferson Park station to non-resi- 
dental, heavily commercial at suburban River Road. The O'Hare station, 
located within the airport, does not have comparable statistics. The O'Hare 
extension stations and the types of neighborhoods are listed in Figure 16. 

Figure 16 
Neighborhoods Surrounding O'Hare Extension stations 

station Type of Neighborhood 

Jefferson Park Densely developed older residential/commercial 

Harlem Avenue Less densely developed newer residential 

Cumberland Avenue Less dense city and suburban residential/office 

River Road Totally commercial suburban 

O'Hare International Airport 

The percent distribution of former modes of travel, as shown in Figure 17, 
varies greatly by station. 'Moving east to west from city to suburb, usage of 
various modes tends to increase or decrease progressively. Auto, commuter rail 
and suburban bus usage tended to be higher at the western end of the extension, 
while rapid transit and CTA bus were used more often on the east end. 

Figure 17 

Percent Distribution of CTA O'Hare Extension Riders 

Who Switched From Other Modes of Travel 

CTA Rapid cont. Sub. Comm. van 
Name of Station Walked Auto Bus Transit Bus Bus Rail Taxi Pool Other Total 



Jefferson Park 


0% 


27% 


60% 


3% 


3% 


3% 


0% 


3% 


1% 


0% 


100% 


Harlem Avenue 


0% 


9% 


19% 


65% 


0% 


1% 


6% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


100% 


Cumberland Avenue 


0% 


19% 


13% 


49% 


0% 


3% 


16% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


100% 


River Road 


0% 


16% 


1% 


34% 


1% 


6% 


41% 


0% 


1% 


0% 


100% 


O'Hare 


0% 


25% 


8% 


26% 


12% 


1% 


1% 


19% 


0% 


8% 


100% 



Total 0% 17% 12% 45% 3% 3% 14% 4% 0% 2% 100% 

The low percentage of former rapid transit users at Jefferson Park is due 
to the fact that the only riders surveyed at that station were those whose 
travel was westward in the O'Hare Corridor. No other rapid transit was avail- 
able for prior travel in this area before the new line opened. Jefferson Park 
also has a high rate of former auto usage. Prior travel at other stations on 
the O'Hare extension was primarily CBD oriented and these persons could 
transfer to rapid transit to complete their trips. Since the Jefferson Park 
passengers in this survey were generally making westward trips in an area that 
never had any rapid transit service, they could not have used it and auto 
travel was the alternative for many of them. 



Transit Station Market Areas 

The home location of all rapid transit survey respondents was obtained in 
order to determine the market area of the O'Hare extension and each station. 
The riders tended to live on the north and northwest sides of Chicago and in 
northwest suburban Cook County. Significantly fewer riders live elsewhere in 
the city or suburbs, even in those areas served by other CTA rapid transit 
routes. Illustration 5 on page 35 shows the home locations of survey 
respondents who live north and northwest of the Chicago CBD. A map showing 
the home locations of all survey respondents appears in the Appendix. 

Jefferson Park 

Prior to the opening of the O'Hare extension the Jefferson Park station 
was the terminal for the CTA West /Northwest Route. Since the new line opened, 
ridership at Jefferson Park has declined by 40% to just under 9,700 boardings 
per day. Its market area, shown in Illustration 6 on page 36, reveals that 
riders who use the O'Hare extension from Jefferson Park tend to live either in 
the immediate vicinity of the station or along the major bus routes which 
radiate in all directions. The market area also extends eastward to Lake 
Michigan through an east-west corridor containing the Foster Avenue (#92) and 
Lawrence Avenue (#81) bus routes. Since there is no convenient rapid transit 
connection between the north and northwest sides of Chicago (except in the 
CBD), north side travelers often use the crosstown bus routes to transfer to 
the O'Hare rapid transit line. At Jefferson Park these routes fill that role. 

Harlem Avenue 

The Harlem Avenue Station market area includes the communities of 
Norridge. Harwood Heights, Park Ridge, Niles and the near and far northwest 
sides of Chicago. The majority of the riders use the seven CTA and suburban 
bus routes that feed this station, for access and egress. Parking facilities 
were not constructed at this station because of objections by residents of the 
surrounding neighborhoods. Consequently, the station does not draw riders 
from distant suburbs. Rather, the home locations of the riders of the seven 
bus routes give form to the market area within the O'Hare corridor. Most auto 
drivers have gone to other stations where parking is available. This has 
resulted in a market area that is geographically smaller than at Cumberland 
Avenue or River Road. This station does, however, have the second highest 
ridership on the O'Hare extension. Finally, the neighborhoods surrounding the 
Harlem Avenue station are predominately residential and there are few 
companies or institutions to attract large numbers of reverse commuters from 
other parts of the city. (See Illustration 7 on page 37.) 

Cumberland Avenue 

The market area for the Cumberland Avenue station covers a large area that 
extends from the north and near northwest sides of Chicago through the O'Hare 
corridor and far into northwestern Cook County. This station was constructed 
with a large parking facility that holds over 750 vehicles and it is the only 
station on the line that has both parking and direct access to the Kennedy 



mom 




35 



ir> o in o 




-38- 

Expressway and the Northwest Tollway. Some of the riders travel from suburbs 
that are ten to twenty miles from the station. Most, however, live in nearby 
O'Hare corridor communities such as Des Plaines, Park Ridge, Niles, Mount 
Prospect and the far northwest side of Chicago. The above locations are also 
served by the competing Chicago and North Western Railroad and many of these 
rapid transit riders formerly used commuter rail to make their trips. While 
the northwest side of Chicago east of Jefferson Park is the predominant area 
of origin for reverse commuters, near north and north side residents also make 
use of the O'Hare extension to gain access to jobs near the Cumberland Avenue 
station. The availability of parking at this station has attracted riders 
from a larger geographic area than the Harlem Avenue station which was con- 
structed without a park and ride lot. (See Illustration 8 on the next page.) 

River Road 

The River Road station market area is similar in size to the market area 
at Cumberland Avenue. The large parking facility holds over 750 vehicles and 
commuters come from a wide area including suburbs in northwest Cook County, 
communities in and around the O'Hare corridor and the north and northwest sides 
of Chicago east of Jefferson Park. The River Road station does not have direct 
access to the Northwest Tollway. Therefore, it attracts more riders from 
Chicago neighborhoods and suburbs north and south of the O'Hare extension. 
The nearby suburbs include Des Plaines, Mount Prospect, Schiller Park and 
Rosemont. This is territory that is also in the market area of the Chicago 
and North Western Railroad. Many of the riders at this station formerly 
traveled via commuter rail. Reverse commuters, most of whom live east of 
Jefferson Park on the northwest side of the city, use this station to transfer 
to and from buses that serve employment centers in Des Plaines, Rosemont, 
Schiller Park and Elk Grove Village. These suburbs are located near O'Hare 
airport. Other reverse commuters can walk to hotel and industrial jobs in the 
vicinity of the River Road station. (See Illustration 9 on page 40.) 

O'Hare Station 

The O'Hare station market area has characteristics that are totally 
different from the other stations on the extension. None of the passengers 
are residents of the surrounding neighborhood because the station is located 
inside O'Hare International Airport. Consequently, very few persons travel 
from home to the airport to board an inbound train. Virtually all of the 
passengers who use this station are either airport/airline employees or 
airline travelers. 

Airport/airline employees live in more areas of the city than reverse 
commuters who use the other stations on the O'Hare extension. Nonetheless, 
the predominant areas of origin are still on the north and northwest sides of 
Chicago, including the O'Hare corridor. 

Fifty-eight percent of the airline travelers who use the O'Hare station 
actually live in the Chicago area. Their home locations are also mostly on 
the north and northwest sides of the city, the O'Hare corridor and nearby 
suburbs. However, some of these air travelers reported home locations in 









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-41- 

areas not served by the O'Hare extension. Some of them were destined for the 
Chicago CBD while others undoubtedly had parked at the River Road or Cumberland 
Avenue stations to take advantage of unrestricted parking for only one dollar. 
By parking at those stations these air travelers avoided the much higher 
parking rates at the airport. This situation has since been remedied and 
parking is allowed only on a daily basis. (See Illustration 10 on page 42.) 

Trip Purpose 

According to survey statistics shown in Figure 18, 79% of the respondents 
in the survey of O'Hare extension passengers had a work/work related trip 
purpose. The second most frequent trip purpose was school, which accounted 
for 9% of the trips. The remaining 12% of the trips were for recreation, 
shopping, airport related and other purposes. The small percentage of trips 
which were not work/work related/school trips indicates that the O'Hare 
extension, and rapid transit in general, does not attract many infrequent, 
discretionary trips, such as for shopping or recreation. Even airport trips, 
which are made by travelers and some visitors, amount to only 5% of the total 
trips on the O'Hare extension. Shopping, recreation and other purposes are 
even less frequently reported. 



Figure 18 
Trip Purpose 
Purpose 


Percent Distribution 


Work/work related 

School 

Airline Travel/Airport visit 

All other 

Total 


79% 
9% 
5% 

7% 
100% 



Current Access Modes 

The survey of rapid transit riders asked how they traveled to the station 
at which they boarded. In this section, the emphasis was on the access mode 
to the O'Hare extension stations only, and these statistics are derived solely 
from the responses, of passengers who were entering those stations. A person 
who boarded a train in the Chicago CBD or any other non-O'Hare corridor 
location and was given a questionnaire upon leaving the station would have 
different access mode characteristics and was therefore excluded from 
consideration. Five modes were most frequently used by persons traveling to 
the O'Hare extension stations. These were Walk Only, Auto Driver. Auto 
Passenger, CTA Bus and Suburban Bus. Moving from east to west on the O'Hare 
extension, the access mode distribution differs according to the 
characteristics of the neighborhoods surrounding the line. Figure 19 shows 
the city to suburban variance in access modes. 



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Figure 19 
Variance of Access Mode Distribution From East to Vest 



Name of 


walk 


CTA 


Suburban 




Auto 




Station 


Only 


Bus 


Bus 


Drove 


Passenqer 


Othei 


Jefferson Park 


29% 


62% 


0% 


3% 


6% 


0% 


Harlem Avenue 


22% 


38% 


15% 


9% 


15% 


1% 


Cumberland Avenue 


18% 


18% 


13% 


38% 


13% 


0% 


River Road 


5% 


6% 


26% 


44% 


16% 


3% 


o'Hare Terminal 


63% 


0% 


8% 


9% 


3% 


17% 



Average 22% 20% 16% 26% 13% 3% 

The in-city neighborhoods surrounding the Jefferson Park and Harlem Avenue 
stations were the origins of a greater percentage of walking access trips than 
were reported at the suburban stations at Cumberland Avenue and River Road. 
Few persons walked to the River Road station, and those who did, came from the 
nearby hotels. 

Usage of CTA buses for station access was high in the city but it 
declined in the suburban areas. The level of service provided by the CTA is 
more suited to the densely developed city neighborhoods and that is where the 
majority of these routes are located. Only a few CTA bus routes serve the 
suburban neighborhoods. 

The frequency of auto access to O'Hare extension stations is low at the 
in-city stations and increases on the suburban sections of the line. Suburban 
riders tend to live further from the stations, and driving from more distant 
locations is often the only practical means of access. In addition, parking 
facilities were built only at the outlying Cumberland Avenue station which has 
good expressway/ to llway access, and at River Road which is located near 
several major arterials. The majority of the vehicles parked in these lots 
are from the suburbs. 

Station access via suburban bus increases from zero percent at Jefferson 
Park to 26% of the rapid transit riders at the River Road station. Many 
suburban feeder bus routes were either created or rerouted at the time the 
o'Hare extension was opened. 

The O'Hare station has much different access mode usage than at the other 
four stations on the line. At the airport, the majority of the entering rapid 
transit passengers walked from the terminal area to the station. Auto and 
suburban bus access are two modes that were occasionally reported, although it 
was not anticipated that anyone would use either mode to get to the O'Hare 
station. However, the data show that some auto drivers had made the trips to 
the airport, paid the higher parking rate, and traveled to the city via rapid 
transit. Work was the trip purpose in most cases. Suburban bus riders also 
gained access to the rapid transit line at O'Hare Airport via two bus routes 
that continue to serve the airline terminals directly. The O'Hare extension 
did not replace all of the bus service to the airport. 



-44- 

The "Other" access mode was reported by 15% of the inbound passengers. 
This category includes employee shuttle buses and regional buses from other 
cities such as Rockford, Illinois and Madison, Wisconsin. 

Total Travel Time 

According to 1980 Census statistics the average travel time for trips 
involving rapid transit is forty-five minutes and the average distance 
traveled is 8 miles. The mean total travel time for all trips in the o'Hare 
Extension Passenger Survey was 55.9 minutes. This longer average travel time 
reflects the fact that most of the trips were to the Chicago CBD, located 10 
to 15 miles from the O'Hare extension. The total travel times shown in Figure 
20 are aggregated by 30 minute increments. 

Figure 20 
Total Travel Time for O'Hare Extension Trips 

(Travel Time in Minutes) 

31-60 61-90 over 91 

59% 17% 6% 

50% 37% 5% 

66% 22% 2% 

70% 15% 4% 

57% 14% 8% 

Average 11% 62% 23% 4% 

The 31-60 minute time frame was the range into which the greatest number 
of trips fell. The mean travel time also falls within this range. Only eleven 
percent of the trips took under thirty minutes to complete. This indicates 
that few rapid transit trips are made for very short distances. Two stations 
are exceptions. Twenty-one percent of all trips at Jefferson Park take under 
30 minutes. However, the survey at this station was confined to persons making 
100% of their rapid transit trip west of Jefferson Park. These tended to be 
shorter trips than those from the other stations on the line, which were more 
CBD oriented. The O'Hare station is the other exception. Access and egress 
time at the airport, naturally was low. Fifty-two percent of the O'Hare sta- 
tion passengers had an access or egress time of under five minutes, resulting 
in a shorter total travel time relative to all other trips. 

The River Road station shows a high proportion of trips in the 61-90 
minute time frame (see Figure 20). This station has a large park and ride lot 
which draws riders from much greater distances than, for example, the Harlem 
Avenue station, which has no parking lot and only limited on-street parking. 
The distance that some commuters travel is apparent in the market area map for 
this station as shown in Illustration 8. 



Station 


Under 30 


O'Hare 


18% 


River Road 


8% 


Cumberland Ave. 


10% 


Harlem Ave. 


11% 


Jefferson Park 


21% 



-45- 

Seventy-three percent of all trips made on the O'Hare extension are 
completed in one hour or less, and ninety-six percent take one and one half 
hours or less. Travel time for O'Hare extension trips correlates with the 
limited geographic area that is being traversed by most of the respondents. 
The majority of the travel was confined to the northwest suburbs, the 
northwest side of Chicago (including the O'Hare Corridor) and the Chicago 
CBD. Longer distance (longer travel time) travel to other parts of the city 
and suburbs is much less frequent. 

Fifty-six percent of the rapid transit passengers in the survey indicated 
that they had made the same trip, with a different travel mode, prior to the 
opening of the O'Hare extension. The mean travel time for these pre-extension 
trips was 63.1 minutes compared with their present mean travel time of 54.7 
minutes. Clearly, the O'Hare Extension has had a positive effect on travel 
time for those who changed modes. Their total travel time has been reduced by 
13.3%. 

Reasons for Using the O'Hare Extension 

Rapid transit passengers were asked why they preferred this mode of travel 
over other types of transportation. The four most important reasons — cost, 
faster travel time, convenience to the trip origin, and car not available — had 
almost the same order of importance at each of the stations, but the percent 
distribution varied according' to the city to suburban pattern mentioned earlier 
in this report. The O'Hare station also seems to fit the pattern, but due to 
the unique characteristics of the ridership it will be considered separately. 
Figure 21 shows the percent distribution of reasons for using the O'Hare 
extension. 

Figure 21 

Reasons for Using the O'Hare 

Extension Rather than Other Modes 







Faster 


Convenience 


No Car 


All 


station 


cost 


Travel Time 


To Start 


Available 


Other 


Jefferson Park 


42% 


16% 


7% 


18% 


17% 


Harlem Avenue 


51% 


14% 


16% 


8% 


11% 


Cumberland Avenue 


60% 


12% 


12% 


6% 


10% 


River Road 


69% 


10% 


5% 


7% 


9% 


O'Hare Terminal 


64% 


14% 


9% 


6% 


7% 


(employees) 


(57%) 


(13%) 


(10%) 


(10%) 


(10%) 


(air travelers) 


(68%) 


(15%) 


( 9%) 


Oil 


( 5%) 



Average 60% 13% 11% 7% 9% 

Cost was the most important reason for using the O'Hare extension. Sixty 
percent indicated this reason, but moving from east to west on the line it was 
given greater importance on the west end. Former commuter rail and auto users 
predominate on the west end, as the new rapid transit service offers a less 
expensive alternative to either driving or riding commuter trains. O'Hare 
extension riders at the east end have had the benefit of lower cost CTA service 



-46- 

and easy access to the- former rapid transit terminal at Jefferson Park. While 
cost was still the most important reason, a much lower percentage of the 
respondents on the east end of the line chose it. 

The second most important reason was faster travel time. 
Respondents on the west end of the O'Hare extension attached less importance 
to travel time, owing to the fact that their trips covered much greater 
distances and hence it took longer to reach their destinations. The survey 
results (see Figure 22) show that a lower percentage of the riders on the far 
west end of the line than on the east end make their trip within 41 to 50 
minutes. Jefferson Park passengers also consider travel time to be important, 
but their travel patterns are different from other riders of the O'Hare 
extension. There were no trips east toward the CBO because the survey at this 
station was limited to persons traveling exclusively on the O'Hare extension. 
The absence of trips east of Jefferson Park yielded shorter overall travel 
times. 

Figure 22 

Percent of Respondents with 

Total Travel Time 41 to 50 Minutes 

Name of Station Travel Time 41 to 50 Minutes 

River Road 17% 

Cumberland Avenue 27% 

Harlem Avenue 31% 

Convenience to the start of the trip was the third most important reason 
for preferring the O'Hare extension. This response was chosen by 11% of the 
riders in the survey. Convenience to the start (origin) of the trip was given 
much greater importance than convenience to the end of the trip, both in this 
survey and in the Chicago and North Western passenger survey. Access to both 
rail lines is excellent for most riders on both ends of their trips; however, 
it appears that riders attach more importance to getting on the train as easily 
and quickly as possible. In other words, it is more desirable to be able to 
get to the train than to get to the destination once the rail trip is over. 

The fourth most important reason for preferring to travel on the O'Hare 
extension was that no car was available. Seven percent of the respondents 
chose this reason, but the percentage by station shows that autos are more 
available to riders on the west end of the line. Jefferson Park riders are 
drawn from a city population that has lower auto ownership than suburbanites 
or even residents of the far northwest side of Chicago. These individuals 
come from the more congested in-city neighborhoods, including the north side 
lakefront, which are well served by mass transit. Thirty-one percent of all 
Jefferson Park riders in the survey indicated that no autos were available to 
members of their households. This figure ranged between 7-9% at the other 
three stations in this comparison. 

O'Hare station passengers have travel patterns that are unique to the 
O'Hare extension. They fall into two basic groups, airline travelers (61%) 
and airport employees (39%). Each has different travel needs. Their reasons 



-47- 

for using the O'Hare extension are compared in Figure 21 on page 45. Cost was 
the main reason that O'Hare station air travelers preferred this service. 
Given the high costs of other modes of airport access, the $.90 cost to ride 
the O'Hare rapid transit line is a bargain. Parking costs for autos range 
from $4 to $12 per day. Taxi fares to the CBD are roughly $25 and Continental 
Air Transport Company buses cost $7.85 for CBD trips. 

Faster travel time was the second most important reason given by the 
airline travelers. Rapid transit has a unique characteristic which sets it 
apart from the other modes of travel at the airport. This line, between 
O'Hare Airport and downtown Chicago, is not affected by street traffic. 
Riders, therefore, do not have to cope with the traffic jams that occur daily 
on the area expressways and arterials. Recently, radio commercials which 
promote use of the O'Hare extension by airline travelers, have stressed the 
lower cost, the faster travel time and the fact that riders can travel on the 
line without worrying about expressway traffic jams. 

The third most important reason given by airline travelers was convenience 
to where the trip started. This is a reflection of the fact that the O'Hare 
station is adjacent to the terminals at the airport, and accessible to 
travelers in the O'Hare Corridor, the northwest side east of Jefferson Park 
and the downtown area. Business travelers going to and from the CBD have 
direct access to five downtown stations, which puts most Loop area 
destinations within a 2-3 block walk. 

O'Hare Airport employees who use the rapid transit line also preferred 
the O'Hare extension for the same four reasons. Cost was the most important 
reason for using the O'Hare extension and faster travel time was second. The 
airport is a long way from the homes of many of the employees and the time 
spent traveling either by bus or auto would be much greater. The third most 
important reason is auto availability. Ten percent of the workers who use this 
line do so because they have no access to an auto. Almost all of these rapid 
transit riders live in Chicago, where according to the 1980 U.S. Census 19% of 
the households do not own a car. It is interesting to note that in the survey 
profile of airport employees who use rapid transit. 31% have no car at their 
households. Finally, convenience to the origin of the trip is the fourth most 
important reason. Three times as many people indicated this reason as opposed 
to convenience to the end of the trip. This suggests that the ability to get 
to the train is very important to many riders. 

Reverse commuting 

Reverse commuters, those who travel west away from the city to go to 
work, constitute 21% of the total ridership on the O'Hare extension. They 
number about 4,100 of the 19,600 total O'Hare corridor boardings. The bulk of 
these work trips originate in Chicago on the northwest side (east of Jefferson 
Park) and on the north side. Fewer work trips originate elsewhere in the city. 



-48- 

Reverse commuter destinations are concentrated in the west end of the 
O'Hare corridor as 83% of these passengers use the Cumberland Avenue, River 
Road and O'Hare stations. Figure 23 shows the distribution of reverse 
commuters by station. 

Figure 23 

Distribution of O'Hare Corridor 

Reverse Commuters by Station 









Factored 




Total 


Percent 


Total 




Station 


Reverse 


Reverse 


Name of Station 


Usaqe 


Commuters 


Commuters 


Jefferson Park 


925 


31% 


286 


Harlem Avenue 


5,355 


8% 


438 


Cumberland Avenue 


5.512 


16% 


887 


River Road 


3.775 


19% 


722 


O'Hare 


4.000 * 


44% 


1.749 



Total 



19.567 



4.082 



* Factored count 



A high percentage of the Jefferson Park riders in the O'Hare corridor are 
reverse commuters (31%). The station is a crosstown transfer point for many 
north side residents who work in the O'Hare Corridor. Reverse commuters at 
the Harlem Avenue station make up 6% of the total ridership. There are no 
major office complexes or hotels in the vicinity of this station; however 
buses do transport workers to and from more distant places of employment. 

The Cumberland Avenue station is surrounded by large office complexes and 
hotels which employ several thousand workers. However, only 16% of the 
ridership at this station are reverse commuters. Travel patterns of office 
employees were determined in the O'Hare Corridor employee survey. The 
buildings that were studied were within walking distance of the Cumberland 
Avenue station, but only five percent of the employees at these buildings were 
daily users of the O'Hare extension. Since the respondents in the survey were 
typical of office workers throughout the O'Hare Corridor, it appears that this 
type of reverse commuter does not choose to use the O'Hare extension. However, 
as new employees enter the office work force in this area, they may be more 
likely to use the service. 

Three hotels are within walking distance of the Cumberland Avenue station 
and many of the employees do use the O'Hare Extension is travel to work. A 
survey of hotel workers in the O'Hare Corridor was conducted in the after 
study but a disappointing return rate of two percent made it difficult to 
analyze the data. However, slightly under one third of those who did respond 
were reverse commuters who used the O'Hare extension. While this is not 
statistically valid, it does give an indication that hotel workers use the new 
line more than office workers. 



-49- 

The area around the River Road station Is the scene of extensive hotel 
development. Nineteen percent of the riders at this station are reverse 
commuters. They are employed either In the nearby hotels or at more distant 
Indus trial /commercial locations which are served by feeder bus routes. As 
more hotels are constructed in the vicinity of the River Road station (several 
are currently being built) and outlying industrial and office complexes are 
developed, the number of reverse commuters will increase at this station. 

The O'Hare station has the highest proportion of reverse commuters. 
Airport and airline employees make up 39% of the ridershlp. However, these 
employees only constitute 6% of the total O'Hare work force. In the survey of 
employees who drive to work, many respondents commented that it was difficult 
to get from the O'Hare station to their Jobs because there were no employee 
shuttle buses. As a result of limited connecting transportation most of the 
employees who do use the O'Hare extension work in areas of the airport that 
are within walking distance of the station. 

As O'Hare Airport continues to expand, both the number of employees and 
reverse commuters will increase. However, the bulk of the work force will 
continue to be auto drivers, as indicated in the results of the survey of 
airport/airline employees. 

Passenger Profile 

According to the rapid transit survey passenger profile, 87% of the 
households owned at least one auto; however, auto ownership among the 
respondents varies greatly by station. Auto ownership is higher at the 
suburban stations and lower in the city. For example, ten precent of the 
respondents who use the River Road station had no vehicles while at Jefferson 
Park, the comparable figure was thirty-one percent. Vehicle availability on 
the day of the survey also varied by station from city to suburb. Seventy- 
three percent of the River Road passengers reported that a car was available 
to drive or ride in, while at Jefferson Park only thirty-three percent had an 
auto available for their use. 

The age group with the greatest number of respondents was 35-49 years 
(31%) followed by the 25-34 age group (27%). These two age groups are most 
typical of the regional work force, which reflects the fact that over three 
quarters of the survey respondents were traveling for work or work related 
purposes. Men outnumber women by a 54% - 46% margin. 

The occupations of the respondents are diverse, though they are concen- 
trated in five main categories. The most frequently reported occupations were 
in the professional/technical category, followed by clerical, sales, student 
and service occupations. (See Figure 24.) 



Figure 24 
Occupations of O'Hare Extension Passengers 

Category Percent 

Professional/Technical 36% 

Clerical 27% 

Sales 9% 

Student 9% 

Service 6% 

Other 13% 

Total 100% 

The occupational categories do not show a clearly defined variation by 
station from city to suburb. This is due in part to reverse commuting at 
stations along the rapid transit line. At River Road, for example, profes- 
sional/technical workers board inbound trains headed for the CBD, while 
reverse commuters, many of whom are hotel and factory workers, are getting off 
the outbound trains to go to work in the suburbs. 



Summary 

Over 19,500 persons board rapid transit trains at the five stations on 
the O'Hare extension. Most of these individuals live and work in a corridor 
that extends northwest from the Chicago CBD through the northwest side of the 
city out to O'Hare Airport and nearby suburbs. Within this corridor are two 
major rail transit routes, the Chicago and North Western Northwest Line and 
the CTA O'Hare rapid transit line. The Milwaukee Road North Line and West 
Line are located east and south of the O'Hare extension. The new stations on 
the O'Hare extension between Jefferson Park and the airport serve an area that 
is designated in this study as the O'Hare Corridor, and the survey of rapid 
transit travel characteristics is concerned only with travel to. from and 
within this area. The study was designed to measure changing travel 
characteristics after the introduction of rapid transit into this heavily 
traveled part of the region. 

Fifty-five percent of the current riders were making the same trip via 
some other mode prior to the extension of service. The balance of the riders 
are new travelers in the O'Hare corridor and have no prior travel patterns. 

The prior mode of travel for those who switched to rapid transit varied 
by station from city to suburb. Suburban riders used to travel more by auto 
or commuter rail while city riders more often used buses to travel to the 
nearest rapid transit station. 

The O'Hare Corridor has been the scene of extensive realignment of travel 
patterns. When choosing to ride rapid transit, travelers must also use 
various other types of transportation to gain access to the station. In 
effect, this access travel constitutes a second new trip generated by the 



-51- 

O'Hare extension. The type of access varies by station from city to suburb, 
with bus trips predominating in the city and autos being used more frequently 
In the suburbs. O'Hare station access Is primarily by walking. 

Eighty-eight percent of all trips on the O'Hare extension were made for 
just two purposes — work/work related and school. The remaining twelve percent 
were spread among shopping, recreation, airport oriented and all other trip 
purposes. These latter trips are made with much greater frequency by the 
general population. 

The mean total travel time for persons using the O'Hare extension for all 
or part of their trip is 55.9 minutes. Individuals who switched to the O'Hare 
extension from some other mode have experienced a 13.3 percent reduction In 
total travel time. 

The reasons for preferring to use the O'Hare extension over other modes 
of travel vary by station from city to suburb. However, cost is the most 
important reason for using the O'Hare extension. 

Reverse commuters const i£uj^^21%of the total O'Hare extension ridershlp, 
and their numbers are greater on the west end of the line. These Individuals 
are employed throughout thje O'Hare Corridor, however, not Just at the airport 
or the new hotels and office complexes that line the Kennedy Expressway. Most 
employees, reverse commuters or otherwise, who work at the office buildings, 
commercial/industrial sites, hotels or the airport, use autos to travel to 
work. ~ 

In the passenger profile section great differences in auto ownership and 
auto availability are apparent from station to station. The characteristics 
of the riders reflect the fact that three-fourths of them were making work or 
work related trips when they were surveyed. They have a wide range of occupa- 
tions, reflecting the diversity of the economic base in the area served by the 
O'Hare rapid transit line between the Chicago CBO and the northwest suburbs. 



-52- 

V. CHICAGO AND NORTH WESTERN SURVEY 

Market Area 

Most of the passengers using the eight CNW stations in this study live 
within three miles of the commuter rail line. The bulk of the ridership 
resides in Mount Prospect, Des Plaines. Park Ridge, Niles. and the far 
northwest side of Chicago. The communities of Rosemont, Norridge, Harwood 
Heights, Wheeling and Prospect Heights are the origins of additional riders. 
The entire eastern half of the CNW market area falls within the service area 
of the CTA bus/rail system, which attracts the majority of transit users due 
to the lower fares, frequent headways and an extensive network of routes. In 
addition to competition from the CTA system, two other Metra commuter rail 
routes, the Milwaukee Road West and North lines compete for those in-city 
residents who prefer to ride the train. Illustration 11 on the next page 
shows the home locations of the CNW riders who use the eight stations that 
were surveyed. Individual station market area maps are shown in the Appendix. 

In both the before and after studies, parking lot Inventories and vehicle 
sticker- license plate surveys were conducted at the CNW stations that have 
parking lots. The results indicate that the market area for the CNW stations 
has not changed and that the »same communities are still the origins of the 
bulk of the parked vehicles. The major difference is in the number of vehicles 
in the lots. An overall reduction of 23% was noted. 

When the CTA rapid transit Line was extended to River Road in February 
1983, two large parking facilities were opened at the River Road and Cumberland 
Avenue, stations. Approximately 750 spaces were provided at each station. A 
vehicle sticker-license plate survey was conducted at each station and the 
results show that these park and ride lots draw commuters from a wide area 
north and west of the O'Hare extension. Over 50% of these vehicles come from 
communities that are within the market area of the CNW. Illustration 12 on 
page 54 shows the home locations of O'Hare extension riders who drive and park 
at the Cumberland Avenue and River Road stations. 



Travel Characteristics 

After the CTA's O'Hare rapid transit extension was completed to O'Hare 
Airport in September 1984, peak hour ridership at the eight Chicago and North 
Western stations in this study dropped by 604, or approximately 20%. Overall 
ridership at these stations declined by 26%. A comparison of the CNW and CTA 
market areas shows that the two rail lines draw riders from the same general 
area. The survey of CNW riders was designed to determine why some commuters 
in this area choose commuter rail over rapid transit. 

The first indication came during the geo-coding of trip origins and 
destinations. A large percentage of the respondents at all eight stations had 
origins within the quarter mile zones immediately adjacent to the stations. 
At first there was suspicion that the respondents had mistakenly recorded the 
train station as the origin, because the requested nearest major intersection 
was so close to the station. However, almost all of these trips showed the 
access mode as "walked" only. In fact, 43% of the Chicago and North Western 
riders in the survey walked to the station. 



o m o 




53 




54 



-55- 

When asked why they chose to ride the Chicago and North Western instead 
of the CTA O'Hare rapid transit line, 73% stated that it was more convenient 
to the origin of their trips, i.e., the home. On the other hand, very few 
respondents (4%) indicated that the CNW was convenient to their destinations, 
even though the data show that the end of the trip is equally convenient to 
the CNW terminal in downtown Chicago. Riders appear to attach more importance 
to getting to the train than getting to the destination. Eighty-six percent 
of the respondents walk to their destinations after they get off the train and 
only 10% reported taking a CTA bus after getting off the train. Illustration 
13 on the next page shows the destinations of CNW passengers. It is clear 
that they do not travel far once they arrive downtown. Eighty-four percent 
arrive at their destinations in less than 15 minutes. Since part of the 
egress time is spent getting out of the congested station area, the balance of 
the walking time is probably under 10 minutes. All of these access and egress 
statistics suggest that, for a majority of the CNW riders in the survey, their 
origins and destinations are close and accessible to the train stations at 
both ends of the trip. To further illustrate this point, 37% of the riders 
report that both the access mode and egress mode are walk only. 

At the time of the after study a CTA monthly pass cost $40 and allowed 
unlimited travel on the bus/rapid transit system. A monthly pass on the CNW 
with a Loop destination cost from $43.20 at Jefferson Park to $71.55 at 
Cumberland. There is a clear cost advantage in choosing the O'Hare rapid 
transit line within the corridor, and some CNW riders switched when the line 
opened. Those who chose to continue using the CNW have accepted the higher 
costs. 

Fifty-seven percent of all access mode trips did not involve direct 
payment of any fee. Included are those who walk, ride as passengers with auto 
drivers or are dropped off at the station by someone who is not taking the 
train. Forty-three percent of the riders do incur costs on the access mode, 
mostly those who drive, paying $10-$15 per month to park their cars at the 
train station or the small number (3%) who take CTA or Pace buses to the 
station. In the rapid transit survey 18 percent of the former commuter rail 
riders used to take buses to the train station. When the O'Hare extension 
opened many bus routes were either created or realigned to begin serving the 
outlying rapid transit stations. This provided bus riders with excellent 
access to the less expensive O'Hare extension. 

On the egress mode, 86% of the riders have no additional costs because 
they walk to their destinations. This leaves only 14% who incur some 
additional expenses once they leave the train. Ten percent of the CNW riders 
took either shuttle or full fare CTA buses and the remaining four percent were 
spread among rapid transit, taxi and miscellaneous other modes of egress 
travel. 

The survey results show that while CNW riders do pay higher fares than 
their CTA rapid transit counterparts, most of them have only minimal 
additional expenses on either the access or egress modes. A commuter with 
access and egress modes (auto or bus) involving additional expense appears 
to choose the CTA O'Hare rapid transit line to minimize costs. For those who 
continue to ride the CNW, the combintlon of greater convenience and little or 
no access/egress cost compensates for the higher train fares. 



uo o in o 




-57- 

Ten percent of the CNV riders stated that they prefer commuter rail over 
rapid transit because parking is more convenient. Observations In the field 
indicated that parking facilities at the River Road and Cumberland Avenue 
rapid transit stations cannot handle the demand and fill up well before 7:30 
AM. At the midpoint of the rush hour, parking at these stations is not 
available. Approximately 2,500 persons take the train from the eight CNV 
stations and 982 vehicles were counted in the various parking lots. Based on 
the responses to the above mentioned question on preference, if parking at the 
two rapid transit stations were more plentiful during the entire rush hour, it 
is estimated that up to 250 more CNV riders would switch to rapid transit. 

Ninety-eight percent of the survey respondents were making work related 
trips and 94% said that they were daily CNV travelers. These two figures lead 
to the assumption that virtually all CNV patrons are monthly or weekly ticket 
holders. Approximately 6% of those surveyed must purchase single ride, round 
trip or ten ride tickets, which are more expensive. Round trip fares to the 
CBO range from $3.20 at Jefferson Park to $5.30 at Cumberland. Compare this 
with the $1.80 round trip fare on the CTA at the time of the survey. The data 
show that very few people use these CNV stations for less than daily travel. 
The infrequent travelers appear to have switched to the O'Hare line. 

Off-peak commuter rail ridership at seven of the eight CNV stations 
(Gladstone Park is rush hour only) in the survey is minimal. Figure 25 shows 
that off-peak riders at these stations comprise only 4% of the total daily 
boardings, while the five stations directly west of Cumberland show off-peak 
boardings as 7% of the total. Most of the CNV riders are dally, rush hour 

Figure 25 

Off-Peak Boardings at Study and 

Non-study CNV stations 

Off-Peak Total Off-Peak 

Stations Boardings Boardings Percent 

Barrington-Mt. Prospect 658 9643 7% 

Cumberland-Jefferson Park 170 3888 4% 

travelers. It is reasonable to assume that the low number of off-peak 
boardings results from infrequent travelers in close proximity to the new 
rapid transit line choosing the cheaper and more frequent service. According 
to the survey of rapid transit riders, 17\ of those who formerly used commuter 
rail travel in the off-peak hours on the O'Hare extension. 

Finally, the CNV riders were asked why they prefer the commuter rail line 
over the CTA O'Hare rapid transit line. One of the responses chosen was 
"Safety". The assumption was that many commuter rail users would prefer this 
mode because they are afraid of crime on the CTA. However, only 8% of the 
riders felt that safety was an issue. When analyzing the data by station, the 
suburban riders had significantly different attitudes than those using stations 
in Chicago. Safety was less of an issue to suburbanites. Riders at the 



-58- 

stations in Chicago mentioned safety with much greater frequency. Figure 26 
shows that safety was hardly a factor at the outlying stations, but moving 
eastward it gained importance. 

Figure 26 
Safety as a Reason for Prefer ing the CNW 

Station Percent Mentioning Safety 

Cumberland 1.9% 

Des Plaines 4.7% 

Dee Road 2.3% 

Park Ridge 7.6% 

Edison Park 12.6% 

Norwood Park 10.0% 

Gladstone Park 27.5% 

Jefferson Park 30.8% 



Summary 

The CNW stations in this study all fall within the market area of the new 
CTA O'Hare rapid transit line, and had a 20% drop in rush hour patronage after 
the new line opened. Riders who choose to patronize the CNW tend to live 
close to the stations and their destinations are within walking distance of 
the downtown Chicago terminal. While CTA fares are cheaper, CNW riders 
generally do not incur additional transportation expenses on the egress and 
access modes and the convenience factor outweighs the extra cost. (Some 
riders appear to have switched to the CTA to cut down on commuting costs.) 
Other CNW riders might switch to the O'Hare extension if more parking were 
available at the stations on that line. Ninety-eight percent of all CNW trips 
are made daily and are work related. These riders can take advantage of 
reduced rate monthly tickets. At these stations there are very few infrequent 
riders who must pay higher ticket prices. In effect, the bulk of the CNW 
patronage is from daily peak hour travelers. Finally, safety is a factor in 
choosing the CNW over the CTA at stations that are closer to the Loop. Riders 
at outlying stations are less concerned with safety. 



-59- 

VI. AIRPORT/AIRLINE EMPLOYEE SURVEY 

Auto Users 

O'Hare Airport and airline employees who use autos to travel to work were 
surveyed separately from those who use the O'Hare extension. Ninety-four 
percent of the airport work force comes to work via auto. In the 1960s, when 
a rapid transit line to O'Hare Airport was originally proposed, it was 
envisioned that a large proportion of the airport work force would use the 
line to travel to work. However, by the time the O'Hare extension was 
completed in 1985 only a small percentage of the airport/airline employees 
could reasonably be expected to ride the rapid transit line to work, because 
most now live in communities where rapid transit is unavailable. 

Market Area 

The market area map of the airport/airline workers home locations, 
Illustration 14 on the next page, shows graphically why so many of them do not 
use rapid transit to travel to work. Most simply do not live near enough to 
the O'Hare rapid transit line to use it. In fact, the majority of these 
workers do not even live in Chicago. The map shows that these individuals 
live north, northwest and west of the airport. A smaller number of employees 
do live in Chicago and nearby suburbs that are served by rapid transit. 

Most of the workers who do live in the area served by the CTA rapid 
transit system come from the O'Hare corridor area, other sections of north and 
northwest sides and close-in suburbs. Many of these employees live very close 
to the airport and they can drive to work in just a few minutes. Making such 
a trip via rapid transit would Involve walking, waiting, and changing modes in 
order to complete the trip. The alternative is an auto trip from home 
directly into the airport. Free parking is provided and employee shuttle 
buses pick up and drop off auto users. 

Seventy-five percent of the employees who travel by auto Indicated that 
they did not use the O'Hare extension because it was not convenient to where 
they live. Sixty-five percent of the employees in this survey live in suburbs 
west of O'Hare Airport. 

Few employees carpool to work, as only four percent of the respondents 
were auto passengers. According to survey statistics, the auto occupancy rate 
was 1.12 persons per car, which compares closely with the 1.14 occupancy rate 
for work trips in the entire Chicago area. In contrast, the occupancy rate 
for work trips to the CBD is 1.23 persons per car. Many airport/airline 
employees have unusual work schedules and some, including flight crews, do not 
work on a Monday through Friday schedule. The combination of unusual work 
schedules and the spreading out of employee residences over a wide area 
prevents many workers from carpool ing and results in a low auto occupancy rate. 

Eighty-four percent of the airport/airline employees report that they 
never use the O'Hare extension to travel to work. Fourteen percent of the 
auto users surveyed have occasionally traveled to work on the O'Hare extension. 




60 



-61- 

However, this group chooses not to use It on a dally basis. Finally, comfort, 
safety, travel time and cost were given as reasons for not using rapid transit 
by smaller numbers of employees. 

Figure 27 

Reasons Why Airport/Airline Employees 

Do Not Use the O'Hare Extension 



Reason 


Percent 


Inconvenient 


75% 


Comfort 


6% 


Safety 
Travel Time 


5% 
5% 


Other 


5% 


Cost 
Total 


4% 

100% 



There are approximately 28,000 airport/airline employees at O'Hare 
Airport. Survey statistics show that 16% of the work force actually has used 
the O'Hare extension to travel to work. Of these employees, 6% are regular 
riders while 10% have used the service on occasion. Even though only a small 
percentage of the work force uses the O'Hare extension regularly, the number 
of workers who have used the service on occasion shows that many employees can 
use rapid transit but choose to use other means of transportation. 

According to the survey profile, over ninety-nine percent of the 
employees own at least one auto. Sixty-two percent are male and the median 
age is 37 years. Household income over $40,000 was reported by almost half 
(45%) of the respondents. The distribution of occupations falls in line with 
airport/airline activities. Clerical and kindred workers, which includes 
baggage handlers, shipping clerks and ticket station and express agents, was 
the occupation group with the greatest number of workers (38%). Service 
workers comprised the second largest group of employees (28%) and professional 
technical employees made up the third largest occupational group (19%). 
Airline pilots and navigators are part of this last category. 

Reasons for Preferring Auto 

The auto users living east of O'Hare Airport were asked why they do not 
use the O'Hare extension to travel to work. Figure 28 shows that 44% 
responded that the line is not convenient to where they live. Many of these 
employees come from areas in the city and suburbs that are not easily 
accessible to rapid transit. They can travel to work faster via auto. 

Figure 28 

O'Hare Employees Who Drive and Live East of the Airport: 

Reasons for Not Using the O'Hare Extension 



Reason 


Percent 


Inconvenient to home 


44% 


Comfort 


15% 


Safety 


13% 


other 


11% 


Travel time 


10% 


cost 


7% 


Total 


100% 



-62- 

Corafort and safety were the second and third most important reasons. 
Apparently personal comfort and safety considerations influence one's mode 
choice when both auto and rapid transit are equally available for travel 
to a destination such as the airport. 

The other category included a stated preference for using a car, poor CTA 
bus service, the need to drive to second jobs and inadequate employee shuttle 
bus service between the O'Hare rapid transit station and the hangar/cargo 
areas. This response was chosen by 11% of the auto users. 

The fifth most frequently reported reason was travel time. If the O'Hare 
extension is not conveniently located to where a worker lives, then it follows 
that travel time would be longer via that mode. Finally, cost was chosen by 
the fewest number of auto users. 



Rapid Transit Users 

Market Area 

The employees who use the O'Hare extension to travel to work tend to live 
in the O'Hare corridor and nearby suburbs and the northwest and north sides of 
Chicago east of Jefferson Park.' A smaller number live in other parts of 
Chicago and in Cook County suburbs north and west of the city limits. While 
the general area of residence is the same for both groups of employees. 
Illustrations 15 and 16 on the following pages show that auto users are more 
predominant in the O'Hare corridor and suburban areas, while O'Hare extension 
riders are more concentrated east of Jefferson Park. 

Reasons for Preferring Rapid Transit 

The rapid transit riders were asked why they prefer to use the O'Hare 
extension. Figure 29 shows that cost was reported by 57% of the respondents. 
Rapid transit riders can save money by using this service. The cost of 
driving a car can be as high as $.40 per mile. In comparison, an average 
rapid transit trip covers 8 miles and costs $.90 or $.11 per mile. This is 
less than one-third of the cost of driving. 

Figure 29 

Employees Who Use the O'Hare Extension — 

Reasons for Using Rapid Transit 



Reason 


Percent 


Cost 


57% 


Travel Time 


13% 


No car available 


10% , 


Convenient to start of trip 


10% 


Convenient to end of trip 


4% 


Frequency of service 


3% 


Easier bus connections 


2% 


Other 


1% 



M 

K S 

ti- 
ll I 




-65- 

Since forty-seven. percent of these rapid transit riders had no auto 
available on the day of the survey and thirty-one percent do not own any 
autos, use of the o'Hare extension saves these individuals from having to 
invest in a vehicle for traveling to work. In contrast, over ninety-nine 
percent of auto drivers and passengers have invested in at least one vehicle. 

It is interesting to note that even though many rapid transit riders do 
not own an auto and even more indicated that one was not available on the day 
of the survey, this condition was perceived to be less important than cost or 
travel time in terms of why they prefer to use the O'Hare extension. Only ten 
percent of the rapid transit riders stated that a car was not available when 
asked why they use the O'Hare extension. Apparently cost was considered a 
much more important reason for using public transportation, though the two 
reasons seem to be interrelated. 

Thirteen percent said that faster travel time was the reason they prefer 
rapid transit. Depending on where these riders live, a rapid transit trip may 
be faster than a driving trip on the expressway or on local streets. The 
perceived importance of travel time was high for rapid transit riders and low 
for auto users. However, the comparison of travel time to work showed that 
driving trips tended to be faster than rapid transit trips. 

summary 

Airport/airline employees that live east of the airport and use autos to 
get to work, tend to live on the northwest side of Chicago, particularly in 
the O'Hare corridor. However, rapid transit users tend to be more 
concentrated in areas of Chicago that are east of Jefferson Park. When auto 
users were asked why they don't use the O'Hare extension, 44% said it was 
inconvenient to where they live, reflecting the fact that many live in 
suburban areas of Cook County that have poor access to the rapid transit 
line. Some drivers, however, live very close to both the airport and the 
O'Hare extension and choose to drive to work. When rapid transit riders were 
asked why they prefer to use the O'Hare extension 58% responded that cost was 
the main reason. This is related to the low rate of auto ownership among this 
group of workers. 



-66- 



VII. CORRIDOR EMPLOYEE SURVEY 

The O'Hare Corridor Employee Survey was conducted at two large office 
buildings that had both been constructed several years prior to the extension 
of rapid transit service west of Jefferson Park. While only two buildings 
were surveyed, a good cross section of employees was obtained due to the 
differences between the two groups of workers. Over 1600 persons are employed 
at these two complexes. One building is occupied almost entirely by the 
administrator of the pension fund of one of the largest labor unions in the 
united States. In this report this survey site will be referred to as the 
union building. The second building is the corporate headquarters of a large 
manufacturing company and in this report it will be referred to as the cor- 
porate building. 

Union Building 

Market Area 

The union building was constructed in 1969, about the time that rapid 
transit service was being extended from Logan Square to Jefferson Park, and 
approximately 1000 persons are employed there. The market area map for the 
union building (in Illustration 17 on the next page) shows that workers live 
in many parts of the Chicago metropolitan region. However, the greatest con- 
centration of workers is within an area roughly five miles from the building. 

Travel Characteristics 

Even though most employees live within the service area of the O'Hare 
rapid transit line, over 73% come to work via auto. The auto trip is actually 
preferable to rapid transit for trips from this particular area because it 
involves a shorter travel time. Auto travel time from the north and northwest 
sides of Chicago including the O'Hare corridor averages 18 minutes. The 
average travel time for rapid transit trips from this same part of Chicago is 
around forty-seven minutes. Often, a rapid transit trip requires additional 
modes of travel; each adding to the total travel time. 

In addition to the 73% who arrive via auto, another 10% of the employees 
live close enough to the union building to walk to work. By contrast, only 1% 
of the employees at the nearby corporate building walk to work. Only 10% of 
the union building employees use the O'Hare extension for all or part of their 
trip to work. Most of these individuals live east of Jefferson Park. 

Employees were asked how often they use the O'Hare extension to travel to 
work. Ten percent of them responded that they use it daily, but an additional 
19% use the service less frequently. Many commented that they use the line 
when the weather is bad or when a car is not available. Clearly, many more 
employees can and do use the O'Hare extension when it is convenient for them 
to do so. 



-68- 

Finally, the employees were asked if they chose to work there because the 
building is close to the O'Hare rapid transit line. Only five percent said 
yes, even though thirty-eight percent of the employees began working there 
after the O'Hare extension was opened. The statistics from the survey of 
employees at the union building suggest that the O'Hare extension has had 
little impact on their travel habits. They either live too close to the 
office or too far from the line to use it on a dally basis. 

Employee Profile 

Only four percent of the union building respondents reported that no one 
in their household owns a car, while fifty percent reported that their house- 
hold owned two cars. Ninety-one percent of the employees at the union 
building indicated that an auto was available for the trip to work on the 
survey date. 

The main age category. 25-34 years, was reported by 45% of the 
respondents, which represents a very young work force. Over 71% of the 
employees are concentrated in clerical and related jobs, and seventy-five 
percent of the employees are women. Forty-five percent of the respondents 
reported household income in the $40,000+ category. 

The preceding employee profile describes a young work force that is 
predominantly non-professional and non-technical, but heavily oriented toward 
clerical occupations. These employees generally travel to work via auto and 
are little affected by the new rapid transit line that runs next to their 
place of employment. 

/ 
Corporate Building 

Market Area 

This building is occupied by the corporate headquarters of a large 
manufacturing company. Approximately 600 employees work at this building, 
which was constructed in the early 1970s. The market area map of the 
corporate building, shown in Illustration 18 on the next page, reveals that 
the employees live in suburban Cook and DuPage counties and in Chicago in the 
O'Hare corridor. The residences of many employees of the corporate building 
appear in a scattershot pattern throughout the above mentioned suburban 
areas. The wider range of home locations may reflect the types of jobs and 
income levels of employees of the corporate building, compared to the union 
building. 

Travel Characteristics 

Eighty-four percent of the corporate building employees arrive at work 
via auto. This is due, in part, to the large number of employees who live in 
suburbs outside of the CTA service area, and in part due to a concentration of 
home locations within a few miles of the building in and near the O'Hare 
corridor. Parking is available on the premises. Eleven percent of the 
corporate building employees arrive at work via company sponsored vanpools. 




69 



-70- 

They come from many distant communities including the southwest side of 
Chicago, Oak Lawn, Hickory Hills, Lisle and Crestwood. This company has 
plants on the southwest side of Chicago and in the southwest suburbs. Some 
employees of these plants have transferred to the corporate headquarters and 
now must travel a greater distance to get to work. 

Only one percent of the employees of this building walk to work. By 
contrast, ten percent walk to work at the union building which is located just 
a few blocks away. 

Survey results show that only one percent of the employees use rapid 
transit to travel to work. Even though this building is situated close to the 
Cumberland Avenue station on the O'Hare extension, few employees use the 
service. Only eight percent of the respondents said that they use the O'Hare 
extension on occasion, but the auto is their preferred mode of travel. The 
residential patterns of the corporate building employees preclude much rapid 
transit usage. Very few employees live on the northwest side of Chicago east 
of Jefferson Park or the north side lakefront areas. Based on the results of 
the Rapid Transit Passenger Survey, the north side of Chicago was expected to 
be the home location of many employees, but only a small number of employees 
at this building live in that part of the city. 

Twenty-four percent of the employees began working at the corporate 
building since the line opened. Employees were asked if the existence of the 
O'Hare extension influenced their choice to work there. Five percent said 
yes, that the rapid transit line was a factor in choosing a place to work. 

The travel patterns of the employees at the corporate building are vir- 
tually unaffected by the existence of the O'Hare extension. Only about 8% of 
them have ever used the line to travel to work and only 1% do so on a daily 
basis. 

Employee Profile 

Over 99% of the employee households own an auto and the same percentage 
reported that a vehicle was available for the trip to work on the survey date. 
At the corporate building, the age group with the most employees was the 35-50 
years category, which accounts for 61% of the work force. Men outnumber women 
by a 61% to 39% margin. Household income was most often reported in the 
$40,000-1- range and this was reported by 55% of the respondents. This reflects 
the fact that 57% of the employee occupations are in the professional/ 
technical category. 

The preceding employee profile describes a work force that has many 
professional employees. The respondents are highly skilled and have high 
incomes. They are auto oriented and little affected by the O'Hare extension 
which runs right past their place of employment. 



Comparison of Travel Characteristics 



By combining the data from the two buildings that were surveyed, a general 
view of the personal and travel characteristics of O'Hare Corridor office 
employees emerges. The market area is extensive, covering the north half of 
Cook County and most of DuPage County. A number of Chicago employees come 
from the far southwest side of the city. The greatest concentration of 
employee residences, however, is in the O'Hare corridor. 

Seventy-eight percent of the employees arrived at work via auto, and less 
than 10% use public transportation. The employees tend to live either too 
close or too far away from the place of work to take advantage of the rapid 
transit service. While only 5% of the employees use rapid transit on a daily 
basis, an additional 13% use it at times when the weather is bad or when an 
auto is not available. Over half (55%) of the daily rapid transit riders 
reported that no auto was available for the trip to work. 

The majority of the employees responding to the survey do not travel on 
the O'Hare extension, sixty-three percent report that the rapid transit line 
is not convenient to where they live. Thirty-one percent of the employees 
were hired after the O'Hare extension was opened but only three percent stated 
that they chose their place, of employment because of the nearby rapid transit 
service. Ninety-seven percent of the office employees own at least one 
vehicle. Ninety-five percent of the employees reported that an auto was 
available for the trip to work on the day of the survey. Women account for 
57% of the employees at these buildings. Clerical employees make up 54% of 
the office work force and the professional/technical employees account for 42%. 



Summary 

The results of the survey of office building employees demonstrates that 
this type of development generates very few rapid transit trips; only five 
percent of the employees are daily users of the service. The low patronage is 
partially due to the fact that the home locations of the employees are not 
convenient to the rapid transit line. The employees tend to live in suburbs 
that have no access to the O'Hare extension or they live within five miles of 
their place of work and prefer to use an auto to travel directly to their 
destinations. Eighty-four percent of the employees use autos to get to work. 

Thirteen percent of the employees indicated that they have used the line 
to travel to work on occasions when the weather is bad or when a car is not 
available. On the day of the survey, ninety-four percent of the respondents 
reported that an auto was available to make the trip to work. Ninety-seven 
percent own at least one car. The effect of the O'Hare extension on the 
travel habits of the office building work force is minimal, because of the 
employees' home locations, which result in heavy reliance on auto travel. 



-72- 

VIII. LAND USE SUMMARY 

As in the before study, the Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 
compiled statistics on new construction and vacant land for all zoning types 
in the corridor surrounding the O'Hare extension. The after study covers the 
period between May 1980 and April 1985. This time period corresponds with the 
planning, construction, opening, and start of operation of the extension. 

The new developments in the vicinity of the O'Hare extension are not 
solely due to the location of the new line or the three new stations that were 
built between Jefferson Park and the airport. It is difficult to determine if 
there is any cause-effect relationship owing to the proximity of O'Hare 
Airport and the location of major expressway interchanges adjacent to each 
station. New developments are, in effect, located in the vicinity of both the 
rapid transit stations and the expressway interchanges. 

since May 1980, the amount of vacant acreage within a one mile radius of 
the rapid transit station areas has decreased by an average of 44.5%. of all 
the zoning types, the category with the greatest decrease in vacant land is 
designated for office and light industrial use. The decrease in this category 
was 65.7%. The zoning type with the least amount of change in vacant land was 
the commercial category, which showed a decrease of 30.1%. All commercial 
development during the five year period took place in a one-half to one mile 
radius of the station areas. 

There have been several major new developments built near the rapid 
transit extension. The area within a one mile radius of the Harlem Avenue 
station has had 240,160 square feet of new construction during the period 
beginning May 1980. Residential construction accounts for 65.7% of all the 
new development in this area. 

Most of the new construction in the area around the Cumberland Avenue 
station has been for office and industrial uses, with sixty-nine percent of 
the new construction in these categories. Only 23.4% of the total was for 
apartment buildings and single family homes. 

The area of overlap between the one mile radii of the Cumberland Avenue 
and River Road stations has 1.14 million square feet of new office/ industrial 
space. The area under development in the overlap is centered on either side 
of the Kennedy Expressway at East River Road, and the new construction 
includes phase III of 'the Presidential Plaza and phase II of the O'Hare Plaza 
complexes. 

The one mile radius around the River Road station had the greatest amount 
of new construction. Fifty-one percent of the. total construction in this area 
is represented by three major hotels. 

Overall, both the amount of vacant land and the square feet of new 
construction increases from Harlem Avenue west to River Road. The area around 
the Harlem Avenue station had only 6.4% of the new construction, while the 



-73- 

area around the River Road station had 52.6%. The only exception to this is 
the amount of vacant land in the area of overlap between Cumberland Avenue and 
River Road. In the overlap area the amount of vacant land is less, because of 
the limited size of the area. 

The data on new construction shows that 57.9% of the residential 
construction occurred around the Harlem Avenue station, with the remainder 
around the Cumberland Avenue station. On the other hand, office/industrial 
construction is prevalent west of Harlem Avenue. 

When the land use statistics from the after study period are compared with 
those of the before study some trends appear. During the ten year period 
between 1970 to 1980 there was a total of 7.23 million square feet of new 
construction. The five year period in the after study had a total of 3.73 
million square feet of new construction. The average annual total square feet 
of new construction in the before study was 723,000, while in the after study 
it was 746,000. This would indicate that the area served by the new rapid 
transit extension has been developing at a nearly constant rate since 1970. 

The major differences in the location and type of development are also 
significant. During the before study 63.9% of new development was residential, 
and the area of greatest activity was centered on the Cumberland Avenue 
station area. In the after study, only 6.7% of the development was residential 
and the area of greatest activity was in the River Road station area. 

There are less than 25 acres available for development around both the 
Harlem Avenue and Cumberland Avenue stations, while the area around the River 
Road station has approximately three times that amount of available acreage. 
Therefore, the River Road station area has the greatest potential for new 
construction in the future. 

Illustrations 19-24 show graphically the current zoning and and the 
amount of vacant land and new construction within one-half mile and one mile 
radii of the Harlem Avenue, Cumberland Avenue and River Road station areas. 
Details of the above data are listed in tables 30-34. 



HARLEM AVENUE STATION 

CTA Rapid Transit O'Hare Extension 

Zoning Map 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 19 




ZONING CATEGORIES: 

SF - A (Rosemont) 

R-1, R-2 (other communities) 
MF - B (Rosemont) 

R-3, R-4, R-5 (other communities) 
COMMERCIAL - D, DD (Rosemont) 

B-1 to B-4, C-1 (other communities) 



OFFICE/LIGHT INDUSTRIAL- E (Rosemont) 

B-5 (other communities) 

INDUSTRIAL- F (Rosemont) 

M-1 (other communities) 



Data Source: NIPC 



HARLEM AVENUE STATION 

CTA RAPID TRANSIT O'HARE EXTENSION 

Vacant land and new construction 

June 1980 to December 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 20 







mm 

- "I • Tl fl n r 

UlLluLs 

JJKuB 



VACANT LAND 



l— | VACAI 



I NEWLY VACANT LAND 
1980-1985 



|g: OFFICE /INDUSTRIAL 

NEW CONSTRUCTION ) ■ RESIDENTIAL 

1980-1985 
BY LAND USE TYPE ) || PUBLIC USE 

11 OTHER 



75 



CUMBERLAND AVENUE STATION 

CTA Rapid Transit O'Hare Extension 

Zoning Map 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 21 




ZONING CATEGORIES: 



SF ■ A (Rosemont) 

R-1, R-2 (other communities) 
MF - B (Rotemoot) 

R-3, R-4, R-5 (other communities) 
COMMERCIAL- D. DO (RoMmom) 

B-1 to B-4, C-1 (other communities) 



OFFICE/LIGHT INDUSTRIAL- E (Rosemont) 

B-5 (other communities) 
INDUSTRIAL- F (Roeamont) 

M- 1 (other communities) 



Data Source: NIPC 



CUMBERLAND AVENUE STATION 

CTA RAPID TRANSIT O'HARE EXTENSION 

Vacant land and new construction 

June 1980 to December 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 22 




Data Sourc*: NIPC 



r~l VACANT LAND 
L - J 1980 



| NEWLY VACANT LAND 
1980-1985 



NEW CONSTRUCTION 

1980-1985 
BY LAND USE TYPE 



H OFFICE/INDUSTRIAL 
g RESIDENTIAL 
ff PUBLIC USE 
M OTHER 



RIVER ROAD STATION 

CTA RAPID TRANSIT O'HARE EXTENSION 

Zoning Map 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 23 




ZONING CATEGORIES: 

SF- A(RoMmont) 

R-1, R-2 (othtr communities) 
MF - B (Rosemont) 

R-3, R-4, R-5 (othtr oommunititt) 
COMMERCIAL- D, DO (RoMmont) 

B-1 to B-4, C-1 (other communities) 



OFFICE/LIGHT INDUSTRIAL- E (Rowmont) 

B-5 (other communities) 
INDUSTRIAL- F (Roeemont) 

M- 1 (other communities) 



Deta Source: NIPC 



78 



RIVER ROAD STATION 
CTA RAPID TRANSIT O HARE EXTENSION 
Vacant land and new construction 
June 1980 to December 1985 



ILLUSTRATION 24 




Data Source NIPC 



r~| VACANT LAND 
L — ' 1980 



NEWLY VACANT LAND 
1980-1985 



/ :>S OFFICE /INDUSTRIAL 

NEW CONSTRUCTION \ fc RESIDENTIAL 

1980-1985 / 

BY LAND USE TYPE ) Hf PUBLIC USE 



79 



-80- 

Flgure 30 
Construction Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 
June 1980 Through December 1985 

Page 1 







Square feet 
/acres 










(s.f, 


. per acre) 








Total for the 
3 Stations 


Harlem 


Cumberland 


Cumberland/ 
River Road 
Overlap 

1.140.000 

/16.38 

(69.597) 


River Road 


Total 


3,733.189 
/105.11 
(35.517) 


240.160 

/20.91 

(11.485) 


390,660 

/28.17 

(13,868) 


1,962,369 

/39.65 

(49,492) 


- 1/2 mile 
radius 


1,491.199 

/42.88 

(34.776) 


2.430 

/0.60 

(4,050) 


275.500 

/17.28 

(15.943) 


NA 


1.213,269 

/25.00 

(48.531) 


1/2 - 1 mile 
radius 


1.101.990 

/45.85 

(24.035) 


237.730 

/20.31 

(11.705) 


115.160 

/10.89 

(10.575) 


NA 


749.100 

/14.65 

(51.133) 


Office/ 
Industrial 


2.355.069 

/50.78 

(46.378) 





268.800 

/17.08 

(15.738) 


1.140.000 
/16.38 
(69,597) 


946.269 

/17.32 

(54.634) 


- 1/2 mile 
radius 


490.069 

/21.58 

(22.709) 





268.800 

/17.08 

(15.738) 


NA 


221.269 

/4.50 

(49.171) 


1/2 - 1 mile 
radius 


725.000 

/12.82 

(56.552) 








NA 


725.000 

/12.82 

(56.552) 


Residential 


249.090 

/21.38 

(11.651) 


157,730 
/15.81 
(9.977) 


91,360 

/5.57 

(16,402) 








- 1/2 mile 
radius 


6,700 

/0.2 

(33,500) 





6,700 

/0.2 

(33,500) 


NA 





1/2 - 1 mile 
radius 


242.390 

/21.18 

(11.444) 


157.730 
/15.81 
(9.977) 


84,660 

/5.37 

(15.765) 


NA 






Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-81- 

Figure 30 (continued) 

New Construction Within a One Mile Radius of each Station 

June 1980 Through December 1985 

Page 2 







Square 


feet 












/acres 










(s.f 


per 


acre) 








Total for the 








Cumberland/ 






3 Stations 


Harlem 


Cumberland 


River Road 


River Road 












Overlap 
est 




Other 


1.129,030 
/32.95 


82,430 
/5.1 


30.500 
/5.52 


1,016.100 
/22.33 




(34.265) 


(16,163) 




(5.525) 




(45.504) 


- 1/2 mile 


994,430 


2.430 







NA 


992,000 


radius 


/21.10 
(47.129) 


/0.60 
(4.050) 








/20.50 
(48.390) 


1/2 - 1 mile 


134.600 


80,000 




30.500 


est NA 


24,100 


radius 


/11.85 


/4.5 




/5.52 




/1.83 




(11.359) 


(17.778) 




(5.525) 




(13,170) 


Public Use 


NA 


NA 




NA 





NA 




/38.81 


/2.26 




/7.83 




/28.72 


- 1/2 mile 


NA 


NA 




NA 


NA 


NA 


radius 


/24.77 


/2.26 




/7.83 




/14.68 


1/2 - 1 mile 


MA 










NA 


NA 


radius 


/14.04 










/14.04 



1. Excluding over-lap area of 1 mile radii around Cumberland and 
River Road. 

2. NA * not applicable. 

3. Other: Refers to development which does not fall directly in 
the Residential or Office/Industrial categories. Examples are: 
hotels, hospitals and schools, etc. 

4. For public use development (e.g.. transit stations) only acreage 
is given; acreage not included in total. 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-82- 

Flgure 31 

New Construction by Building Type 

Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 

June 1980 - December 1985 

Harlem Cumberland Cumberland/ Total 3 

Station Station River Road Overlap River Road stations 

Office/ 

Industrial 268.800 1.140.000 946.269 2.355,069 

Residential 157,730 91.360 249.090 

Other 82.430 30,500 est. 1,016,100 1,129,030 

All Types 240,160 390,660 1,140.000 1.962.369 3,733.189 



1 Does not include public use construction, e.g.. transit station 
structures. Other refers to development which does not fall 
directly in the Residential or Off ice/ Indus trial categories. 
Examples are: hotels, hospitals and schools, etc. 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-83- 

Figure 32 

New Construction by Community 

Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 

June 1980 Through December 1985 



Chicago 

Total 3 stations 

Harlem Station 

Cumberland Station 

Cumber land/ River Road 
Over-Lap 



1.613.820 s.f. on 53.81 acres = 29.991 s.f./acre 

240.160 s.f. on 20.91 acres = 11.485 s.f./acre 

233.660 s.f. on 16.52 acres » 14.144 s.f./acre 

1.140.000 s.f. on 16.38 acres - 69.597 s.f./acre 



Nor ridge 
Cumberland Station 



30,500 s.f. (est) on 5.52 acres * 5.525 /acre 



Park Ridge 
Cumberland Station 



126.500 s.f. on 6.13 acres » 20.636 s.f./acre 



Rosemont 

River Road Station 



1.962.369 s.f. on 39.65 acres - 49.492 s.f./acre 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-84- 

Figure 33 

New construction by Parcel 

Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 

June 1980 through December 1985 

Page 1 

HARLEM AVENUE STATION 



Chicago 



1) Resurrection Retirement Center 
7262 Peterson 



113,990 s.f. 
on 11.31 acres 



2) Resurrection Health Care Complex 80,000 s.f. 
7447 Talcott on 4.50 acres 

3) Harlem Avenue CTA Station NA 

2.26 acres 



4) Wendy's 

5446 N. Harlem 



2,430 s.f. 
on 0.60 acres 



5) single Family Homes 
4901 - 4966 Sayre 
4900 - 4965 Newland 



43,740 s.f. 
on 4.50 acres 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-85- 

Figure 33 (continued) 

New Construction by Parcel 

Within a One Mile Radius of Each station 

June 1980 through December 1985 

Page 2 

CUMBERLAND AVENUE STATION 



Chicago 



1) Cumberland Avenue Station 



NA 
on 7.83 acres 



2) Cumberland Metro 

5501-5523 N. Cumberland 



172.800 s.f. 
on 14 acres 



3) Three Story Apartment Building 
8504 Catherine , 



6,700 s.f. 
on 0.20 acres 



4) 8 Two Story Apartment Buildings 
8624 - 8652 Catherine 



22,800 s.f. 
on 1.14 acres 



5) 10 Two Story Apartment Buildings 31.360 s.f. 



8645 - 8665 Catherine 



on 1.18 acres 



Nor ridge 



6) Salvation Army - Nor ridge Corp 
8354 Foster Avenue 



30,500 s.f. (est) 
on 5.52 acres 



Park Ridge 



7) 14 Single Family Homes 
Granville Avenue between 
Western and Lincoln 



30,500 s.f. 
on 3.05 acres 



8) O'Hare Corporate Center 
1300 Higgins Road 



96,000 s.f. 
on 3.08 acres 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-86- 

Flgure 33 (continued) 

New Construction by Parcel 

Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 

June 1980 through December 1985 

Page 3 

CUMBERLAND/RIVER ROAD OVERLAP 



Chicago 



1A) O'Hare Plaza Phase II 440,000 s.f. 

5742 N.E. River Road on 6.38 acres 



2A) Presidential Plaza Phase III 700,000 s.f. 
8750 - 8770 W. Bryn Mawr on 10 acres 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



-87- 

Figure 33 (continued) 

New construction by Parcel 

Within a one Mile Radius of Each Station 

June 1980 through December 1985 

Page 4 

RIVER ROAD STATION 



1) Our Lady of Hope Church 
9711 Devon 



24,100 s.f. 
on 1.83 acres 



2) Orchard Point 

9700 Higgins Road 



325,000 s.f. 
on 5.74 acres. 



3) One O'Hare Center 
6000 N. River Road 



400.000 s.f. 
on 7.08 acres 



4) The west in - O'Hare 
6100 N. River Road 



500,000 s.f. 
on 11.0 acres 



5) River Road CTA Station 



NA 

on 9.4 acres 



6) CTA Power Station 

South of the Kennedy between 
River Road and the Tri-State 



on 5.28 acres 



Columbia Center 
5590 River Road 



221,269 s.f. 
on 4.5 acres 



8) The sofitel Hotel 
5550 N. River Road 



230,000 s.f. 
on 4 . 1 acres 



9) 



The Radisson Hotel 
5500 N. River Road 



234.000 s.f. 
on 2.4 acres 



10) Pour Story Parking Deck 
Hyatt International Hotel 
9300 Bryn Mawr 



Not Available 



11) O'Hare International Trade 

and Exposition Center-addition 



28.000 s.f. 
on 3.0 acres 



Chicago 



12) Water Pumping Station 
Vicinity of Mannheim and 
the railroad tracks 



on 14.04 acres 



Data Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



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-89- 

Figure 34 (continued) 

vacant Land Within a One Mile Radius of Each Station 

(In Acres) 

Page 2 

CUMBERLAND/RIVER ROAD OVERLAP 



ZONING 
Single Family 



MAY 1980 



APRIL 1985 



0-1/2 mile radius 
1/2-1 mile radius 



Multl-Famllv 

0-1/2 mile radius 
1/2-1 mile radius 



18.18 



18.18 



Commercial 



0-1/2 mile radius 
1/2-1 mile radius 



0.96 



Office/Light 
Industrial 

0-1/2 mile radius 
1/2-1 mile radius 



27.27 



Industrial 

0-1/2 mile radius 
1/2-1 mile radius 



Total for all zoning 



46.86 



Data source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission 



IX. AFTER STUDY. CONCLUSIONS 

Ridership 

The opening of the O'Hare extension did not just result in a redistri- 
bution of riders from the old Jefferson Park terminal to the new stations, it 
also brought new riders to the rapid transit system. According to before 
study statistics, there were 16,043 boardings at Jefferson Park prior to the 
opening of the new line. By late 1985, the O'Hare extension had a total 
boarding count of 28,300 passengers, including all persons using the Jefferson 
Park station. This was an increase of 42 percent over the count when the CTA 
West/Northwest route terminated at Jefferson Park. Ridership at the four new 
stations has reached 85% of the total projection of the environmental impact 
study for the O'Hare extension. 

The increase in rapid transit riders is an indication that the O'Hare 
extension has made travel much more convenient for persons living in and near 
the O'Hare corridor. This travel is primarily oriented to the Chicago CBD and 
the near north and northwest sides of the city. The new line also provides a 
potentially important link to O'Hare Airport and employment centers on the 
west end of the O'Hare corridor. 

While the O'Hare extension has opened up travel possibilities in the 
corridor, there has been no great impact on the total volume of vehicular 
traffic into and through the study area. Rather than greatly affecting auto 
travel in the O'Hare corridor, the opening of the extension has resulted in a 
redistribution of riders who had been using public transportation and the 
services of private providers (taxis and airport buses) to make the same trips 
they now make via rapid transit. Total boardings at the former Jefferson Park 
terminal dropped by 40% as passengers switched to the new, more convenient 
stations further west on the extension. New and realigned CTA and suburban 
feeder bus routes began transporting riders to and from the new stations. 
Several hundred commuter rail passengers who had been using stations located 
in the vicinity of the new line also switched to the O'Hare extension. At 
O'Hare Airport, taxi and airport bus patrons began to take advantage of the 
new service which is far less costly and not affected by congestion and 
traffic problems between the airport and the Chicago CBD. 

Over 300,000 jobs exist in the O'Hare corridor. They are concentrated in 
the west end, in and around O'Hare International Airport, which is the largest 
employment center in the area. The airport is surrounded by light manufac- 
turing and service companies, hotels and office buildings. The O'Hare exten- 
sion is not the mode of travel for the vast majority of the employees in this 
area. 

Basically, the O'Hare extension is not used for trips to work within the 
O'Hare corridor because for most of the employees the line is not convenient 
to where they live. Workers in the O'Hare corridor tend to reside in suburban 
areas northwest and west of the airport, which are not served by the O'Hare 



-91- 

extension. For them, use of the rapid transit system for work trips is out of 
the question. Those workers who are residents of the o'Hare corridor generally 
live so close to their jobs that it is faster and more convenient to drive or 
ride in an auto to their places of employment. The only work trips to corri- 
dor area Jobs via rapid transit are the small number of reverse commuter trips 
generally from east of Jefferson Park. These account for 21% of all trips on 
the O'Hare extension. 



Increasing O'Hare Extension Ridership 

The O'Hare extension mainly serves O'Hare corridor residents who work in 
the Chicago CBO. the near north and northwest sides of the city, plus a smaller 
number of reverse commuters. The line does have the potential for attracting 
more riders, however, mainly because of the expanding Job base in the western 
end of the corridor. 

O'Hare Airport is undergoing a two billion dollar expansion program which 
should result in several thousand more jobs. At present. O'Hare Airport 
directly and indirectly provides approximately 104,000 persons with employment. 
The current modernization and expansion program is expected to increase the 
number of persons employed , to above 230,000 by 1995. This will provide 
significant numbers of new riders for the rapid transit line. 

Many new office complexes are either be^ng planned or are under construc- 
tion east of the airport. For example, the Rosemont redevelopment plan, when 
completed, will Include a minimum of nine new office buildings totaling up to 
ten million square feet of space by 1990. Currently under construction are 
three new hotels providing a total of 900 rooms and suites by the end of 1987. 

Even though limited data exist, it appears that the new hotels that are 
either under construction or in the planning stages will employ a greater 
number of workers who will use rapid transit than either the airport or the 
office complexes. Potentially as many as one third of the hotel employees 
would use the service. Most of the hotels in the O'Hare corridor are close to 
the rapid transit line. 

An increase in commuter parking facilities would also lead to increased 
ridership on the O'Hare extension. At present the existing parking lots fill 
up before 7:30 AN. Obviously all of those commuters who wish to use the line 
cannot do so. Given the fact that the new line is accessible to the system of 
highways that converge on the corridor, others would be likely to switch to 
rapid transit if more parking were available. There is concern that more 
parking will lead to a further erosion of the commuter rail ridership. In the 
analysis of the commuter rail survey it was estimated that as many as 250 more 
Chicago and North Western passengers might switch to rapid transit if 
additional parking were available. 

There is no doubt that demand for parking exceeds the supply along the 
O'Hare extension, and additional parking would take the pressure off the two 
lots that are currently in use. The construction of additional parking has 



-92- 

raany policy and political ramifications. If, however, additional spaces were 
provided, a greater number of travelers will be able to choose their mode of 
travel in the O'Hare corridor based on cost or convenience rather than a 
shortage of parking spaces. 

A small number of service and Industrial employees use the O'Hare 
extension to get to Jobs in the vicinity of the airport. However, their 
numbers are not great in comparison with the total number of Chicago residents 
who travel to Jobs in the areas northwest and west of O'Hare Airport. More 
frequent feeder bus service at the outlying stations would make these Jobs 
more accessible to these reverse commuting rapid transit riders. 

Finally, airline travelers represent an untapped market for the O'Hare 
extension. The new service has Just begun to be publicized and marketed to 
air travelers. A strong marketing approach, including improved signage at the 
airport, can target travelers from out of town. During the survey at the 
O'Hare station, passengers frequently commented that they were surprised to 
find out that there was rail service at the airport and expressed amazement 
that the fare was so low. 



Al 



APPENDIX 

L. CTA O'Hare Rapid Transit Extension Survey - Questionnaire 

2. Chicago and North Western Passenger Survey - Questionnaire 

3. O'Hare Airport Employee Survey - Questionnaire 

4. O'Hare Corridor Survey - Questionnaire 

5. Return Address. Postage and Title - All Questionnaire 

6. O'Hare Corridor Employees Survey - Spanish Questionnaire 

7. Questionnaire Distribution Record 

8. Home Location of All CTA Rapid Transit Riders Using the 
O'Hare Extension 

9. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Cumberland Station 

10. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Des Plaines Station 

11. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Dee Road Station 

12. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Park Ridge Station 

13. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Edison Park Station 

14. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders using the 
Norwood Park Station 

15. Residences of Chicago and North western Riders Using the 
Gladstone Park Station 

16. Residences of Chicago and North Western Riders Using the 
Jefferson Park Station 



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APPENDIX 7 



QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION RECORD 



Chicago and North Western stations 







CATS 


Question- 


Question- 






Day/Date 


Boarding 


naires 


naires 


Return 


Station 


of Survey 


Counts 


Distributed 


Returned 


Percentage 


Cumberland 


Tuesday 












10/1/85 


412 


370 


210 


56.8 


Des Plaines 


Wednesday 












10/9/85 


878 


679 


296 


43.6 


Dee Road 


Thursday 












10/10/85 


336 


269 


123 


45.7 


Park Ridge 


Tuesday 












10/15/85 


616 


476 


247 


51.9 


Edison Park 


Wednesday 












10/16/85 


290 


236 


132 


55.9 


Norwood Park 


Thursday 












10/17/85 


132 


no 


68 


60.9 


Gladstone Park 


Wednesday 












10/16/85 


45 


43 


26 


60.5 


Jefferson Park 


Thursday 












10/17/85 


176 


_JJi. 


56 


50.5 






2,885 


2.294 


1,158 


50.5 



Rapid Transit Stations 





Day/Date 


Counts 


naires 


naires 


Return 


station 


of Survey 


Board inq 


Aliqhtina 


Distributed 


Returned 


Percentaqe 


O'Hare Terminal 


Monday 














11/4/85 


3,300* 


3,503* 


3,174 


512 


16.1 


River Road 


Tuesday 














10/22/85 


3,521 


3,271 


3,362 


728 


16.2 


Cumberland Ave. 


Tuesday 














10/29/85 


5,349 


4,248 


3,889 


1,018 


26.1 


Harlem Ave. 


Wednesday 














10/30/85 


5,029 


4.877 


4,059 


935 


23.0 


Jefferson Park 


Thursday 














10/31/85 


925** 


944** 


1.035 


116 


11.2 






18.124 


16.843 • 


15,519 


3.304 


21.3 



* Estimated 
** CATS boarding and alighting counts for riders using only 
the new portion of the rapid transit line. 



APPENDIX 7 (continued) 



QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION RECORD 



O'Hare Airport Employees 
Parking Lot E 



Hangar Entrance 



Cargo Area 
Total 



Day/Date 
Surveyed 


Number of 

Persons 
Entering 


Question- 
naires 
Distibuted 


Question- 
naires 
Returned 


Return 
Percentage 


Tuesday 
11/2/85 


933 


673 


220 


32.7 


Thursday 
11/14/86 


3,166 


983 


192 


19.5 


- 


— * — 


600 


62 


10.3 




4,099 


2.256 


474 


21.0 



O'Hare Corridor Employees 
Union Building 



Corporate Building 
Total 



Tuesday 
3/25/86 



804 



720 


268 


37.2 


500 


255 


51.0 


,220 


523 


42.9 



Questionnaire Distribution Handled by Individual Companies 



HOME LOCATIONS OF CTA RAPID TRANSIT RIDERS 




APPENDIX 8 



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